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NYS Vehicle & Traffic Law Excerpts

Warning PLEASE READ THIS FIRST!
These excerpts are provided for information only and NOT as the basis for legal or judicial determinations.  ALWAYS verify them against the most recent available copy of the law.  The entire Vehicle and Traffic Law, sorted by section number, is available from the New York State Legislative Bill Drafting Commission. external link

NOTE:  This page contains only the sections of Part 375 which relate to passenger vehicle equipment which is safety related.  The sections have been grouped together by topic and are not in numerical order.

 

§375 Equipment.

1.  (a) Every motor vehicle, operated or driven upon the public highways of the state, shall be provided with adequate brakes and steering mechanism in good working order and sufficient to control such vehicle at all times when the same is in use, and a suitable and adequate horn or other device for signaling, which horn or device shall produce a sound sufficiently loud to serve as a danger warning but shall not be used other than as a reasonable warning nor be unnecessarily loud or harsh.

(b.) Every such motor vehicle shall be equipped with suitable wipers or other device which shall clear a sufficient area of the windshields to provide reasonable driving vision.
(i) The use or placing of posters or stickers on windshields or rear windows of motor vehicles other than those authorized by the commissioner, is hereby prohibited. In a city of one million or more, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that the person whose name, telephone number, or other identifying information appears on any handbill or other form of advertisement attached to a windshield or windshield wipers of a motor vehicle shall be in violation of the provisions of this subdivision relating to the prohibition against attaching to windshields and windshield wipers, handbills and other forms of advertisements.

(ii) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in addition to those persons otherwise authorized to enforce this subdivision and adjudicate violations thereof, the provisions of this subdivision shall also be enforceable in a city having a population of one million or more by an agency or agencies designated for such purpose by the mayor of such city, and notices of violation may be returnable to the environmental control board of such city, which shall have the power to impose the civil penalties herein provided. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, service of a notice of violation of this subdivision committed in such city may be made upon a person by first class mail, postage prepaid, and any such notice served by mail shall be returnable only to such environmental control board. Such service by first class mail shall be deemed complete upon mailing of the notice of violation, unless the notice of violation is returned to the sender by the United States postal service for any reason other than refusal of delivery. In addition, any notice of violation for a violation of this subdivision may be served by a means prescribed in article three of the civil practice law and rules or article three of the business corporation law. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, such civil penalties imposed by such environmental control board shall be paid into the general fund of such city. 

(iii) Any final order issued pursuant to this subdivision by an environmental control board of a city having a population of one million or more shall constitute a judgment which may be entered in any place provided for the entry of civil judgments within the state, and may be enforced without court proceeding in the same manner as the enforcement of money judgments entered in civil actions. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, before a judgment based upon a default may be so entered, such environmental control board must have notified the respondent by first class mail in such form as such environmental control board may direct: (A) of the default decision and order and the penalty imposed; (B) that a judgment will be entered in any place provided for the entry of civil judgments in the state; and (C) that the entry of such judgment may be avoided by requesting a stay of default for good cause shown and either requesting a hearing or entering a plea pursuant to the rules of such environmental control board within thirty days of the mailing of such notice. No judgment based upon a default may be so entered by the environmental control board within thirty days of the mailing of such notice. No judgment based upon a default may be so entered by the environmental control board within less than sixty days from the completion of service by mail of the notice of violation as provided in subparagraph (ii) of this subdivision. Any requirement of any provision of law other than this subdivision that related to the manner of service of the notice of violation that precedes any final order of such environmental control board shall not apply to a final ordered issued pursuant to this subparagraph. A judgment entered pursuant to this subdivision shall remain in full force and effect for eight years. The attaching to windshields and windshield wipers of handbills and other forms of advertisements, is hereby prohibited.

(c) Every trailer and semi-trailer weighing more than one thousand pounds unladen and every trailer and semi-trailer manufactured or assembled on or after January first, nineteen hundred seventy-one having a registered maximum gross weight, an actual gross weight or gross weight consisting of the unladen weight and maximum carrying capacity recommended by the manufacturer in excess of three thousand pounds also shall be equipped with adequate brakes in good working order if operated or drawn on the public highways of this state. Every trailer while being drawn upon the public highways of this state shall be so attached to the vehicle drawing the same as to prevent the wheels of such trailer from being deflected more than six inches from the path of the towing vehicle's wheels. On and after January first, nineteen hundred seventy-one every trailer, except a semi-trailer, while being drawn upon the public highways of this state, shall be attached to the vehicle drawing the same by a device of a type approved by the commissioner.

(d) The commissioner shall make rules prescribing standards of brake efficiency, except for motor vehicles the standard of brake efficiency of which are fixed by the department of public service, and no brakes shall be deemed adequate within the meaning of this subdivision unless they meet the requirements of such rules. Such rules shall be filed in the office of the secretary of state and thereafter published once in the state advertising bulletin and shall become effective one month after such publication. Any amendment to such rules shall be likewise filed and published and shall take effect one month after such publication.

(e) No operator or registered owner of any motor vehicle having a registered maximum gross weight of eighteen thousand pounds or more shall disconnect or knowingly permit the disconnection of any set of service brakes on such motor vehicle. Any violation of the provisions of this paragraph shall occur only when such vehicle is actually operated on the public highways. Such violation shall be punishable as a misdemeanor.

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Glass

12. It shall be unlawful to operate on any public highway or street in this state any motor vehicle registered in New York state unless such vehicle be equipped with safety glass wherever glass is used in doors, windows and windshields. For the purposes of this subdivision, any device other than a trailer, which is attached to or carried upon a motor vehicle and which lawfully can be occupied while the motor vehicle is in motion, shall be considered a part of such motor vehicle.

12-a. (a) Every motor vehicle, except a motorcycle, when driven or operated upon a public highway, road or street shall be equipped with a front windshield in a fixed and more or less upright position constructed of safety glass as defined in subdivision fourteen of this section and required by subdivisions eleven and twelve hereof. No person shall drive any motor vehicle with any sign or other nontransparent material other than a certificate or paper required to be displayed by law upon the front windshield or the sidewings or side windows on either side forward of or adjacent to the operator's seat.

(b) No person shall operate any motor vehicle upon any public highway, road or street:

(1) the front windshield of which is composed of, covered by or treated with any material which has a light transmittance of less than seventy percent unless such materials are limited to the uppermost six inches of the windshield; or

(2) the sidewings or side windows of which on either side forward of or adjacent to the operator's seat are composed of, covered by or treated with any material which has a light transmittance of less than seventy percent; or

(3) if it is classified as a station wagon, sedan, hardtop, coupe, hatchback or convertible and any rear side window has a light transmittance of less than seventy percent; or

(4) the rear window of which is composed of, covered by or treated with any material which has a light transmittance of less than seventy percent. A rear window may have a light transmittance of less than seventy percent if the vehicle is equipped with side mirrors on both sides of the vehicle so adjusted that the driver thereof shall have a clear and full view of the road and condition of traffic behind such vehicle.

(c) Any person required for medical reasons to be shielded from the direct rays of the sun and/or any person operating a motor vehicle belonging to such person or in which such person is an habitual passenger shall be exempt from the provisions of subparagraphs one and two of paragraph (b) of this subdivision provided the commissioner has granted an exemption and notice of such exemption is affixed to the vehicle as directed by the commissioner. The applicant for such exemption must provide a physician's statement with the reason for the exemption, the name of the individual with a medically necessary condition operating or transported in the vehicle, the specific condition involved, and the minimum level of light transmission required. The commissioner shall only authorize exemptions where the medical condition certified by the physician is contained on a list of medical conditions prepared by the commissioner of health pursuant to subdivision sixteen of section two hundred six of the public health law. If such such exemption is granted, the commissioner shall make a record thereof and shall distribute a sufficiently noticeable sticker to the applicant to be attached to any window so shielded or altered pursuant to such exemption.

(d) The commissioner may test any window for a person who has been charged with violating this subdivision. If such window is found to be in conformity with this subdivision, a small label attesting to the conformity shall be affixed to the window tested.

(e) On and after January first, nineteen hundred ninety-two, no person shall manufacture, sell, offer for sale, equip or operate a motor vehicle in this state in violation of the provisions of this subdivision, except that a person may operate a nineteen hundred ninety-one or earlier model year vehicle without violating this subdivision if the windows on said vehicle were in conformity with this subdivision as it existed on December thirty-first, nineteen hundred ninety-one.

(f) The commissioner shall make such rules and regulations as he shall deem necessary to carry out the provisions of this subdivision.

(ff) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section or any other general, special or local law, charter, administrative code, ordinance, rule or regulation to the contrary, any person operating a motor vehicle in a burial or funeral procession while travelling to or from a funeral, interment or cremation may place a funeral sign no larger than eight and one half by fourteen inches in any window of such vehicle, as long as such sign when so placed will not prevent such person from having a clear and full view of the road and the condition of traffic behind such vehicle.

13. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to replace glass in doors, windows, or windshields of motor vehicles unless such replacement be made with safety glass.

14. The term "safety glass" as used in this section shall be construed to mean any product composed of glass, so manufactured, fabricated or treated as substantially to prevent shattering and flying of the glass when struck or broken, or such other or similar product as may be approved by the commissioner.

22. It shall be unlawful to operate a motor vehicle upon the public highways of this state which is equipped with any glass which is so broken, fractured or discolored as to distort visibility.

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Tires

35. Tires. (a) The commissioner may establish standards for the manufacture, regrooving or retreading of tires which are produced or sold in this state, and for the use of tires on vehicles operated in this state.

(b) No tire shall be manufactured, distributed, offered for sale or sold in this state if it does not comply with the standards established by the commissioner pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subdivision. A violation of this paragraph shall be punishable as a misdemeanor.

(c) No person shall operate a motor vehicle or a trailer on a public highway if such vehicle is equipped with tires that do not meet the standards established by the commissioner pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subdivision.

35-a. It shall be unlawful to operate a motor vehicle or trailer equipped with tires having metal objects protruding from the tire tread upon any public highway. The prohibition contained in this section shall not apply to pneumatic tires containing metal type studs, the diameter of which studs inclusive of the stud casing does not exceed three-eighths of an inch and which do not protrude beyond the tread surface of such tires more than three thirty-seconds of an inch and the contact area of which does not exceed three-fourths of one per cent of the total nominal contact area of said tires determined by multiplying the circumference of the outer most edge of tread times the tread width, except that no vehicle equipped with such tires, other than school buses and state or municipally-owned vehicles, may operate on a public highway during the period from the first day of May to the fifteenth day of October, inclusive.

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Lighting

2. (a) Every motor vehicle except a motorcycle, driven upon a public highway during the period from one-half hour after sunset to one-half hour before sunrise or at any other time when windshield wipers are in use, as a result of rain, sleet, snow, hail or other unfavorable atmospheric condition, and at such other times as visibility for a distance of one thousand feet ahead of such motor vehicle is not clear, shall display:

1. at least two lighted head lamps on the front, one on each side, having light sources of equal power;

2. if manufactured prior to January first, nineteen hundred fifty-two, at least one lighted lamp on the rear which shall display a red light visible from the rear for a distance of at least five hundred feet;

3. if manufactured on or after January first, nineteen hundred fifty-two, at least two lighted lamps on the rear, one on each side, which lamps shall display a red light visible from the rear for a distance of at least one thousand feet; and

4. if required to display a number plate on the rear, a white light which shall illuminate the numerals on such plate in such manner as to render such numerals legible for at least fifty feet from the rear. The provisions of this subparagraph shall also apply to trailers.

(b) All lamps used on a motor vehicle except a motorcycle shall be so arranged, adjusted and operated, as to avoid dangerous glare or dazzle. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this subdivision, the upper outline of any beam of dazzling light projected to the left of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle by the lowermost light distribution of a headlamp designed to produce more than one light distribution, or by the single light distribution of any other lamp used on such a motor vehicle, shall not rise higher than the lamp center at a distance of twenty-five feet nor higher than forty-two inches at a distance of seventy-five feet. In each case, the height of the beam shall be measured from the plane upon which the vehicle stands and the distance shall be measured from the lamp projecting the light.

(c) No lamp shall be used on a motor vehicle having a light source greater than thirty-two candle power, unless such lamp is approved by the commissioner as provided by this section. The provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to any light which is permitted to be displayed only on an authorized emergency vehicle, a hazard vehicle or a vehicle which is permitted to display a blue or green light pursuant to paragraphs four and five of subdivision forty-one of this section.

(d) A motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle, equipped with any device such as, but not limited to, a snow plow blade, which blocks or impairs the projection of light from the headlamps of such vehicle, shall be equipped with at least two additional headlamps on the front which headlamps meet all the requirements of this subdivision for headlamps except those provisions of paragraph (b) of this subdivision specifically limiting the height of the beam of any headlamp.

3. Headlamps required pursuant to the provisions of subdivision two of this section may be of the multiple beam type designed to produce more than one distribution of light or of the single beam type designed to produce only one distribution of light. Provided that, whenever a vehicle approaching from ahead is within five hundred feet, or when approaching a moving vehicle from the rear and within two hundred feet of the same, the headlamps, if of the multiple beam type, or the auxiliary front facing lamps, if the vehicle is so equipped, shall be operated so that dazzling light does not interfere with the driver of the approaching vehicle, or the vehicle being approached, and, whenever the highway is so lighted or traffic thereon is such that illumination of the highway for more than two hundred feet ahead of the vehicle by lights on such vehicle is unnecessary or impracticable, the headlamps, if of the multiple beam type, or the auxiliary front facing lamps, if the vehicle is so equipped, shall be operated with the lowermost distribution of light in use. Nothing contained in this subdivision shall be construed to prevent the use of flashing high beams to signify an intention to pass a vehicle or vehicles when two or more vehicles are traveling in the same direction, the operation of any headlamp as defined in paragraph d of subdivision two of this section, nor shall it apply to any auxiliary front facing lamp permitted to be displayed only on an authorized emergency vehicle.

4. No headlamp shall be used upon any motor vehicle except a motorcycle operated upon the public highways of this state, unless such lamp is approved by the commissioner or is equipped with a lens or other device approved by the commissioner. Every such headlamp, lens or other device shall be applied and adjusted in accordance with the requirements of the certificate approving the use thereof. Every such headlamp shall be firmly and substantially mounted on the motor vehicle in such manner as to allow the lamp to be properly and readily adjusted. The operator of every motor vehicle shall permit any policeman, police officer or other person exercising police powers to inspect the equipment of such motor vehicle, and make such tests as may be necessary to determine whether the provisions of this section are being complied with. Any certificate of approval heretofore issued pursuant to law, or hereafter issued by the commissioner may be revoked by the commissioner, after a hearing of which the person or corporation named therein, or his or its successor in interest, shall have been given reasonable notice and an opportunity to appear and be heard upon the ground that the device does not comply with the provisions of this section, and the rules and regulations of the commissioner and the decision of the commissioner revoking such certificate shall be final; such revocation, however, of a lens or other headlighting device heretofore or hereafter approved shall not take effect until six months after the decision of the commissioner revoking the same and shall apply only to vehicles manufactured and used thereafter on the highways of this state. The foregoing provisions governing lights on motor vehicles do not apply to so-called dimmers the use of which is permitted or required by local ordinances. The commissioner may make such rules and regulations relative to lights on motor vehicles and the approval of the same as are not inconsistent with the specific provisions of this section.

7. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm, association or corporation to sell or offer for sale a headlighting device without delivering therewith to the purchaser a printed sheet of instructions describing the device in detail, its method of mounting, arrangement and adjustment and specifying the candle power of the lamps to be used thereon and any other matter that may be necessary to insure compliance in the use of such device with the provisions of this article and the certificate of approval. Such instructions shall be printed with a photogravure of the pattern of light from one headlight shown on a regulation testing screen with respect to a horizontal cross line placed across the face of such screen at a height equal to the height of the center of such headlight, and with the headlight adjusted in accordance with the rules and regulations of the commissioner. The sale of a headlighting device not approved under the provisions of this section is prohibited. A violation of any of the provisions of this subdivision shall be a misdemeanor.

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Directional Signals

18. Except as otherwise provided herein, it shall be unlawful to operate on any public highway or street in this state any motor vehicle, or combination of motor vehicle and trailer, so constructed or so loaded that the driver thereof is unable to indicate clearly by hand signals to approaching and following traffic his intention of stopping or turning, unless such motor vehicle or combination of vehicles shall be equipped with directional signals approved by the commissioner, provided, however, it shall be unlawful after January first, nineteen hundred fifty-two to operate on any public highway or street in this state any motor vehicle registered in this state, manufactured or assembled after said date unless such vehicle be equipped with directional signals approved by the commissioner. It shall also be unlawful to fail to cause such signals to be maintained, at all times in good and sufficient working order. The provisions of this subdivision shall not apply to special purpose commercial motor vehicles registered under schedule F of subdivision seven of section four hundred one of this chapter or to a vehicle or combination of vehicles lawfully operated under registration issued, under section four hundred fifteen of this chapter or under a similar provision of the law of another jurisdiction.

18-a. Any motor vehicle may be equipped with and every motor vehicle registered in this state and manufactured or assembled after June thirtieth, nineteen hundred sixty-five, and designated as a nineteen hundred sixty-six or subsequent year model, shall be equipped with a device, approved by the commissioner, by means of which the operator may cause the two front and two rear directional signals to flash simultaneously for the purpose of warning the operators of other vehicles of the presence of a vehicular traffic hazard requiring the exercise of unusual care in approaching, overtaking or passing. The provisions of this subdivision requiring that certain motor vehicles shall be so equipped shall not apply to special purpose commercial motor vehicles registered under schedule F of subdivision seven of section four hundred one or to a vehicle or combination of vehicles lawfully operated under registration issued under section four hundred fifteen.

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Stop Lamps

40. Stop lamps. (a) Every motor vehicle, except a motorcycle, operated or driven upon the public highways of the state, if manufactured prior to January first, nineteen hundred fifty-two, shall be equipped with at least one stop lamp which shall display a red to amber light visible at least five hundred feet from the rear of the vehicle when the brake of such vehicle is applied. 

(b) Every motor vehicle, except a motorcycle, operated or driven upon the public highways of the state, if manufactured on or after January first, nineteen hundred fifty-two, shall be equipped with at least two stop lamps, one on each side, each of which shall display a red to amber light visible at least five hundred feet from the rear of the vehicle when the brake of such vehicle is applied.

 

Back Up Lights

34. Any motor vehicle may be equipped with and every passenger vehicle registered in this state and manufactured or assembled after January first, nineteen hundred sixty-nine, shall be equipped with at least one back-up light. Such light shall display a white light to the rear when the ignition switch is energized and reverse gear is engaged. Such light shall not be lighted when the motor vehicle is in forward motion.

 

Colored and flashing lights

41. Colored and flashing lights. See the Emergency Vehicle Safety & EMS V & T Law Page.

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Bumpers

48. Bumpers or similar devices. (a) For the purposes of this subdivision, the following terms shall have the following meanings:

(i) Bumper. A system, the primary function of which is to provide protection against damage affecting front or rear external lamps, body parts and vehicle occupants during low speed impacts.

(ii) Passenger car. A motor vehicle whose body style is a sedan, hardtop, coupe, convertible, station wagon or hatchback but not a van, minivan, multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, tractor, motorcycle or bus.

(b) No person shall operate a passenger car registered in New York unless it is equipped with both a front and rear bumper, each securely fastened and with some part of the bumper located between sixteen inches and twenty inches above the ground. This provision shall not apply to a vehicle registered as an historical vehicle.

(c) Except insofar as paragraph (b) of this subdivision shall apply, no person shall operate a motor vehicle designated as a nineteen hundred ninety or newer model year vehicle, which is registered in this state, except a motorcycle or special purpose commercial vehicle registered under schedule F of subdivision seven of section four hundred one of this chapter, which is so constructed that the body has a clearance at the front end of more than thirty inches from the ground when empty, unless the front end of the vehicle is equipped with bumpers or devices serving similar purposes which shall be so constructed and located that (i) some part of the bumpers or devices must be at least sixteen but not more than thirty inches above the ground with the vehicle empty; (ii) the maximum distance between the closest points between bumpers or devices, if more than one is used, shall not exceed twenty-four inches; (iii) the maximum transverse distance from the widest part of the motor vehicle at the front to the bumper or device shall not exceed eighteen inches; and (iv) the bumpers or devices shall be substantially constructed and firmly attached. A motor vehicle constructed and maintained so that the body, chassis, or other parts of the vehicle afford the front end protection contemplated shall be deemed to be in compliance with this section.

(d) Except insofar as paragraph (b) of this subdivision shall apply, no person shall operate a motor vehicle or a combination of vehicles, designated as a nineteen hundred ninety or newer model year vehicle, except a tractor, pole trailer, vehicle engaged in saddle-mount operation, motorcycle or special purpose commercial vehicle registered under schedule F of subdivision seven of section four hundred one of this chapter, if the motor vehicle is registered in this state, and which is so constructed that the body, or the chassis assembly without the body, has a clearance at the rear end of more than thirty inches from the ground when empty, unless the rear end of the vehicle or combination of vehicles is equipped with bumpers or devices serving similar purposes which shall be so constructed and located that: (i) some part of the bumpers or devices must be at least sixteen but not more than thirty inches above the ground with the vehicle empty; (ii) the maximum distance between the closest points between bumpers, or devices, if more than one is used, shall not exceed twenty-four inches; (iii) the maximum transverse distance from the widest part of the motor vehicle at the rear to the bumper or device shall not exceed eighteen inches; (iv) the bumpers or devices shall be located not more than twenty-four inches forward of the extreme rear of the vehicle; and (v) the bumpers or devices shall be substantially constructed and firmly attached. Motor vehicles constructed and maintained so that the body, chassis, or other parts of the vehicle afford the rear end protection contemplated shall be deemed to be in compliance with this section.

 

Mirrors

10. a. Every motor vehicle, when driven or operated upon a public highway, shall be equipped with a mirror or other reflecting device so adjusted that the operator of such vehicle shall have a clear and full view of the road and condition of traffic behind such vehicle.

b. In addition to the above requirements, an omnibus having a capacity of ten or more passengers registered in this state and manufactured or assembled after July first, nineteen hundred seventy, shall be equipped with a mirror attached to the right side of such vehicle and so adjusted that the driver thereof shall have a clear and full view of the road and condition of traffic behind such vehicle.

c. Every passenger motor vehicle registered in this state and manufactured or assembled after June thirtieth, nineteen hundred sixty-nine, and designated as a nineteen hundred seventy or subsequent year model, shall be equipped with adjustable interior mirrors meeting specifications established by the commissioner which specifications may provide minimum and maximum reflectance values.

d. Every new passenger-type motor vehicle, except a motorcycle, manufactured for sale in New York state on or after January first, in the year next succeeding the effective date of this paragraph shall be manufactured with an interior rear-view mirror of the selective position prismatic type with a reflectance value in the night driving position of at least four percent; or its functional equivalent. For purposes of this section, "passenger-type motor vehicle" shall mean any motor vehicle with a seating capacity of not more than fifteen adults, not including the driver, that is equipped with one or more rear windows. Any violation of the provisions of this paragraph by any manufacturer shall constitute an offense and shall be punishable by a civil fine of not more than seven hundred fifty dollars for each offense.

e. Every single-unit motor vehicle registered in this state, operated for commercial purposes and having a cube style or enclosed walk-in delivery bay, where such delivery bay has a length of eight feet six inches or more, but not exceeding a length of eighteen feet, shall be equipped with a cross-view back-up mirror system, rear video system, rear object detection system, or other device, which enables the driver of the vehicle to detect by means of a visual, or visual and audible warning-indicator, persons and objects located directly behind the vehicle. The commissioner is hereby authorized to promulgate regulations providing specifications for mirrors or other devices as required by this paragraph.

f. Every sani-van and motor vehicle commonly classified as a garbage truck purchased on or after January first, two thousand eight and registered in this state, which is operated in and engages in the collection of garbage or refuse in the county of Westchester shall be equipped with a rear video system, rear object detection system, or other device which enables the driver of the vehicle to detect by means of a visual, or visual and audible warning-indicator, persons and objects located directly behind the vehicle. The commissioner is hereby authorized to promulgate regulations providing specifications for mirrors or other devices as required by this paragraph. Provided, however, that the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to motor vehicles commonly classified as rolloff vehicles that are used for the express purpose of transporting waste containers such as open boxes or compactors.

10-a. It shall be unlawful after July first, nineteen hundred sixty-seven to operate on any public highway in this state any motor vehicle registered in this state, manufactured or assembled on or after such date, and designated as a nineteen hundred sixty-eight or later model, unless such vehicle is equipped with an adjustable side view mirror which shall be affixed to the left outside of such vehicle and which shall be adjustable so that the operator of such vehicle may have a clear view of the road and condition of traffic on the left side and to the rear of such vehicle.

 

Defrosters

39. Every motor vehicle registered in this state and manufactured or assembled after October first, nineteen hundred sixty-four shall be equipped with a defrosting device, in good working order, for the purpose of preventing the formation of snow or ice on the windshield directly in front of the operator. For the purposes of this subdivision the term "motor vehicle" shall exclude motorcycles, tractors used exclusively for agricultural purposes, self-propelled combines, self-propelled harvesting machines and farm equipment and self-propelled caterpillar or crawler-type equipment while being operated on the contract site.

10-b. It shall be unlawful after June thirtieth, nineteen hundred seventy-three to operate on any public highway or street in this state, any passenger type motor vehicle except convertible, suburban and omnibus or other motor vehicle that has a roll-down rear window or a rear window or windows located in a movable closure (door-like) member registered in this state, manufactured or assembled after said date, and designated as a nineteen hundred seventy-four or subsequent model unless such vehicle be equipped with a rear window defogger or defroster, which shall be so located and adjusted that its operation will give the operator of such vehicle, by means of the mirror or other reflecting device required by subdivision ten of this section, a view of the road and the condition of traffic behind such vehicle.

10-c. It shall be unlawful after June thirtieth, nineteen hundred eighty-five to operate on any public highway or street in this state, any passenger type motor vehicle that has a rear window or windows located in a movable closure (door-like) member, except for a multipurpose passenger vehicle (designed to carry ten persons or less and constructed either on a truck chassis or with special features for occasional off-road operation) registered in this state and manufactured or assembled after said date, and designated as a nineteen hundred eighty-six or subsequent model unless such vehicle be equipped with a rear window defogger or defroster, which shall be so located and adjusted that its operation will give the operator of such vehicle, by means of the mirror or other reflecting device required by subdivision ten of this section, a view of the road and the condition of traffic behind such vehicle.

10-d. It shall be unlawful after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred ninety-two to operate on any public highway or street in this state, any passenger type motor vehicle that has a rear window located in a single movable closure (door-like) member and which has a non-removeable top, registered in this state and manufactured or assembled after said date, and designated as a nineteen hundred ninety-three or subsequent model unless such vehicle be equipped with a rear window defogger or defroster, which shall be so located and adjusted that its operation will give the operator of such vehicle, by means of the mirror or other reflecting device required by subdivision ten of this section, a view of the road and the condition of traffic behind such vehicle.

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Vehicle Equipment Related Traffic Safety Tips