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Contents

The crimes of aggravated vehicular assault and aggravated vehicular homicide are sections of the New York State Penal Law. These sections of law are available at the New York State Legislative Bill Drafting Commission web site (scroll down to PEN).

Article 31 Alcohol and Drug-Related Offenses and Procedures Applicable Thereto
Section 1192. Operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
Section 1192-A. Operating a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol; under the age of twenty-one; per se.
Section 1193. Sanctions.
Section 1194. Arrest and testing.
Section 1194-A. Driving after having consumed alcohol; under twenty-one; procedure.
Section 1195. Chemical test evidence.
Section 1196. Alcohol and drug rehabilitation program.
Section 1197. Special traffic options program for driving while intoxicated. [STOP-DWI]
(This law is on a separate page and includes the Commissioner's Regulations for oversight of the STOP-DWI program.)
Section 1198. Ignition interlock device program.
Section 1198-A. Special procedures and disposition involving alcohol and substance abuse assessment and treatment.
Section 1199. Driver responsibility assessment.

§ 1192. Operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. 1. Driving while ability impaired. No person shall operate a motor vehicle while the person's ability to operate such motor vehicle is impaired by the consumption of alcohol.
2. Driving while intoxicated; per se. No person shall operate a motor vehicle while such person has .08 of one per centum or more by weight of alcohol in the person's blood as shown by chemical analysis of such person's blood, breath, urine or saliva, made pursuant to the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article.
2-a. Aggravated driving while intoxicated. (a) Per se. No person shall operate a motor vehicle while such person has .18 of one per centum or more by weight of alcohol in such person's blood as shown by chemical analysis of such person's blood, breath, urine or saliva made pursuant to the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article.
(b) With a child. No person shall operate a motor vehicle in violation of subdivision two, three, four or four-a of this section while a child who is fifteen years of age or less is a passenger in such motor vehicle.
3. Driving while intoxicated. No person shall operate a motor vehicle while in an intoxicated condition.
4. Driving while ability impaired by drugs. No person shall operate a motor vehicle while the person's ability to operate such a motor vehicle is impaired by the use of a drug as defined in this chapter.
4-a. Driving while ability impaired by the combined influence of drugs or of alcohol and any drug or drugs. No person shall operate a motor vehicle while the person's ability to operate such motor vehicle is impaired by the combined influence of drugs or of alcohol and any drug or drugs.
5. Commercial motor vehicles: per se - level I. Notwithstanding the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-five of this article, no person shall operate a commercial motor vehicle while such person has .04 of one per centum or more but not more than .06 of one per centum by weight of alcohol in the person's blood as shown by chemical analysis of such person's blood, breath, urine or saliva, made pursuant to the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article; provided, however, nothing contained in this subdivision shall prohibit the imposition of a charge of a violation of subdivision one of this section, or of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article where a person under the age of twenty-one operates a commercial motor vehicle where a chemical analysis of such person's blood, breath, urine, or saliva, made pursuant to the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article, indicates that such operator has .02 of one per centum or more but less than .04 of one per centum by weight of alcohol in such operator's blood.
6. Commercial motor vehicles; per se - level II. Notwithstanding the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-five of this article, no person shall operate a commercial motor vehicle while such person has more than .06 of one per centum but less than .08 of one per centum by weight of alcohol in the person's blood as shown by chemical analysis of such person's blood, breath, urine or saliva, made pursuant to the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article; provided, however, nothing contained in this subdivision shall prohibit the imposition of a charge of a violation of subdivision one of this section.
7. Where applicable. The provisions of this section shall apply upon public highways, private roads open to motor vehicle traffic and any other parking lot. For the purposes of this section "parking lot" shall mean any area or areas of private property, including a driveway, near or contiguous to and provided in connection with premises and used as a means of access to and egress from a public highway to such premises and having a capacity for the parking of four or more motor vehicles. The provisions of this section shall not apply to any area or areas of private property comprising all or part of property on which is situated a one or two family residence.
8. Effect of prior out-of-state conviction. A prior out-of-state conviction for operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or drugs shall be deemed to be a prior conviction of a violation of this section for purposes of determining penalties imposed under this section or for purposes of any administrative action required to be taken pursuant to subdivision two of section eleven hundred ninety-three of this article; provided, however, that such conduct, had it occurred in this state, would have constituted a misdemeanor or felony violation of any of the provisions of this section. Provided, however, that if such conduct, had it occurred in this state, would have constituted a violation of any provisions of this section which are not misdemeanor or felony offenses, then such conduct shall be deemed to be a prior conviction of a violation of subdivision one of this section for purposes of determining penalties imposed under this section or for purposes of any administrative action required to be taken pursuant to subdivision two of section eleven hundred ninety-three of this article.
8-a. Effect of prior finding of having consumed alcohol. A prior finding that a person under the age of twenty-one has operated a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four-a of this article shall have the same effect as a prior conviction of a violation of subdivision one of this section solely for the purpose of determining the length of any license suspension or revocation required to be imposed under any provision of this article, provided that the subsequent offense is committed prior to the expiration of the retention period for such prior offense or offenses set forth in paragraph (k) of subdivision one of section two hundred one of this chapter.
9. Conviction of a different charge. A driver may be convicted of a violation of subdivision one, two or three of this section, notwithstanding that the charge laid before the court alleged a violation of subdivision two or three of this section, and regardless of whether or not such conviction is based on a plea of guilty.
10. Plea bargain limitations. (a) (i) In any case wherein the charge laid before the court alleges a violation of subdivision two, three, four or four-a of this section, any plea of guilty thereafter entered in satisfaction of such charge must include at least a plea of guilty to the violation of the provisions of one of the subdivisions of this section, other than subdivision five or six, and no other disposition by plea of guilty to any other charge in satisfaction of such charge shall be authorized; provided, however, if the district attorney, upon reviewing the available evidence, determines that the charge of a violation of this section is not warranted, such district attorney may consent, and the court may allow a disposition by plea of guilty to another charge in satisfaction of such charge; provided, however, in all such cases, the court shall set forth upon the record the basis for such disposition.
(ii) In any case wherein the charge laid before the court alleges a violation of subdivision two, three, four or four-a of this section, no plea of guilty to subdivision one of this section shall be accepted by the court unless such plea includes as a condition thereof the requirement that the defendant attend and complete the alcohol and drug rehabilitation program established pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-six of this article, including any assessment and treatment required thereby; provided, however, that such requirement may be waived by the court upon application of the district attorney or the defendant demonstrating that the defendant, as a condition of the plea, has been required to enter into and complete an alcohol or drug treatment program prescribed pursuant to an alcohol or substance abuse screening or assessment conducted pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-eight-a of this article or for other good cause shown. The provisions of this subparagraph shall apply, notwithstanding any bars to participation in the alcohol and drug rehabilitation program set forth in section eleven hundred ninety-six of this article; provided, however, that nothing in this paragraph shall authorize the issuance of a conditional license unless otherwise authorized by law.
(iii) In any case wherein the charge laid before the court alleges a violation of subdivision one of this section and the operator was under the age of twenty-one at the time of such violation, any plea of guilty thereafter entered in satisfaction of such charge must include at least a plea of guilty to the violation of such subdivision; provided, however, such charge may instead be satisfied as provided in paragraph (c) of this subdivision, and, provided further that, if the district attorney, upon reviewing the available evidence, determines that the charge of a violation of subdivision one of this section is not warranted, such district attorney may consent, and the court may allow a disposition by plea of guilty to another charge in satisfaction of such charge; provided, however, in all such cases, the court shall set forth upon the record the basis for such disposition.
(b) In any case wherein the charge laid before the court alleges a violation of subdivision one or six of this section while operating a commercial motor vehicle, any plea of guilty thereafter entered in satisfaction of such charge must include at least a plea of guilty to the violation of the provisions of one of the subdivisions of this section and no other disposition by plea of guilty to any other charge in satisfaction of such charge shall be authorized; provided, however, if the district attorney upon reviewing the available evidence determines that the charge of a violation of this section is not warranted, he may consent, and the court may allow, a disposition by plea of guilty to another charge is satisfaction of such charge.
(c) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subdivision, in any case wherein the charge laid before the court alleges a violation of subdivision one of this section by a person who was under the age of twenty-one at the time of commission of the offense, the court, with the consent of both parties, may allow the satisfaction of such charge by the defendant's agreement to be subject to action by the commissioner pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four-a of this article. In any such case, the defendant shall waive the right to a hearing under section eleven hundred ninety-four-a of this article and such waiver shall have the same force and effect as a finding of a violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article entered after a hearing conducted pursuant to such section eleven hundred ninety-four-a. The defendant shall execute such waiver in open court, and, if represented by counsel, in the presence of his attorney, on a form to be provided by the commissioner, which shall be forwarded by the court to the commissioner within ninety-six hours. To be valid, such form shall, at a minimum, contain clear and conspicuous language advising the defendant that a duly executed waiver: (i) has the same force and effect as a guilty finding following a hearing pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four-a of this article; (ii) shall subject the defendant to the imposition of sanctions pursuant to such section eleven hundred ninety-four-a; and (iii) may subject the defendant to increased sanctions upon a subsequent violation of this section or section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article. Upon receipt of a duly executed waiver pursuant to this paragraph, the commissioner shall take such administrative action and impose such sanctions as may be required by section eleven hundred ninety-four-a of this article.
(d) In any case wherein the charge laid before the court alleges a violation of subdivision two-a of this section, any plea of guilty thereafter entered in satisfaction of such charge must include at least a plea of guilty to the violation of the provisions of subdivision two, two-a or three of this section, and no other disposition by plea of guilty to any other charge in satisfaction of such charge shall be authorized; provided, however, if the district attorney, upon reviewing the available evidence, determines that the charge of a violation of this section is not warranted, such district attorney may consent and the court may allow a disposition by plea of guilty to another charge in satisfaction of such charge, provided, however, in all such cases, the court shall set forth upon the record the basis for such disposition. Provided, further, however, that no such plea shall be accepted by the court unless such plea includes as a condition thereof the requirement that the defendant attend and complete the alcohol and drug rehabilitation program established pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-six of this article, including any assessment and treatment required thereby; provided, however, that such requirement may be waived by the court upon application of the district attorney or the defendant demonstrating that the defendant, as a condition of the plea, has been required to enter into and complete an alcohol or drug treatment program prescribed pursuant to an alcohol or substance abuse screening or assessment conducted pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-eight-a of this article or for other good cause shown. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply, notwithstanding any bars to participation in the alcohol and drug rehabilitation program set forth in section eleven hundred ninety-six of this article; provided, however, that nothing in this paragraph shall authorize the issuance of a conditional license unless otherwise authorized by law.
11. No person other than an operator of a commercial motor vehicle may be charged with or convicted of a violation of subdivision five or six of this section.
12. Driving while intoxicated or while ability impaired by drugs--serious physical injury or death or child in the vehicle. (a) In every case where a person is charged with a violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of this section, the law enforcement officer alleging such charge shall make a clear notation in the "Description of Violation" section of a simplified traffic information (i) if, arising out of the same incident, someone other than the person charged was killed or suffered serious physical injury as defined in section 10.00 of the penal law; such notation shall be in the form of a "D" if someone other than the person charged was killed and such notation shall be in the form of a "S.P.I." if someone other than the person charged suffered serious physical injury; and (ii) if a child aged fifteen years or less was present in the vehicle of the person charged with a violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of this section; such notation shall be in the form of "C.I.V.". Provided, however, that the failure to make such notations shall in no way affect a charge for a violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of this section.
(b) Where a law enforcement officer alleges a violation of paragraph (b) of subdivision two-a of this section and the operator of the vehicle is a parent, guardian, or custodian of, or other person legally responsible for, a child aged fifteen years or less who is a passenger in such vehicle, then the officer shall report or cause a report to be made, if applicable, in accordance with title six of article six of the social services law.

§ 1192-A. Operating a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol; under the age of twenty-one; per se. No person under the age of twenty-one shall operate a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol as defined in this section. For purposes of this section, a person under the age of twenty-one is deemed to have consumed alcohol only if such person has .02 of one per centum or more but not more than .07 of one per centum by weight of alcohol in the person's blood, as shown by chemical analysis of such person's blood, breath, urine or saliva, made pursuant to the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article. Any person who operates a motor vehicle in violation of this section, and who is not charged with a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article arising out of the same incident shall be referred to the department for action in accordance with the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four-a of this article. Except as otherwise provided in subdivision five of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, this section shall not apply to a person who operates a commercial motor vehicle. Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, a finding that a person under the age of twenty-one operated a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol in violation of this section is not a judgment of conviction for a crime or any other offense.

§ 1193. Sanctions. 1. Criminal penalties. (a) Driving while ability impaired. A violation of subdivision one of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article shall be a traffic infraction and shall be punishable by a fine of not less than three hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars or by imprisonment in a penitentiary or county jail for not more than fifteen days, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A person who operates a vehicle in violation of such subdivision after having been convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding five years shall be punished by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than seven hundred fifty dollars, or by imprisonment of not more than thirty days in a penitentiary or county jail or by both such fine and imprisonment. A person who operates a vehicle in violation of such subdivision after having been convicted two or more times of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding ten years shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be punished by a fine of not less than seven hundred fifty dollars nor more than fifteen hundred dollars, or by imprisonment of not more than one hundred eighty days in a penitentiary or county jail or by both such fine and imprisonment.
(b) Driving while intoxicated or while ability impaired by drugs or while ability impaired by the combined influence of drugs or of alcohol and any drug or drugs; aggravated driving while intoxicated; misdemeanor offenses. (i) A violation of subdivision two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article shall be a misdemeanor and shall be punishable by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars, or by imprisonment in a penitentiary or county jail for not more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A violation of paragraph (a) of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article shall be a misdemeanor and shall be punishable by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars nor more than two thousand five hundred dollars or by imprisonment in a penitentiary or county jail for not more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
(ii) In addition to the imposition of any fine or period of imprisonment set forth in this paragraph, the court shall also sentence such person convicted of, or adjudicated a youthful offender for, a violation of subdivision two, two-a or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article to a term of probation or conditional discharge, as a condition of which it shall order such person to install and maintain, in accordance with the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-eight of this article, an ignition interlock device in any motor vehicle owned or operated by such person during the term of such probation or conditional discharge imposed for such violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and in no event for a period of less than twelve months; provided, however, that such period of interlock restriction shall terminate upon submission of proof that such person installed and maintained an ignition interlock device for at least six months, unless the court ordered such person to install and maintain an ignition interlock device for a longer period as authorized by this subparagraph and specified in such order. The period of interlock restriction shall commence from the earlier of the date of sentencing, or the date that an ignition interlock device was installed in advance of sentencing. Provided, however, the court may not authorize the operation of a motor vehicle by any person whose license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle has been revoked pursuant to the provisions of this section.
(c) Felony offenses. (i) A person who operates a vehicle (A) in violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of a violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of such section or of vehicular assault in the second or first degree, as defined, respectively, in sections 120.03 and 120.04 and aggravated vehicular assault as defined in section 120.04-a of the penal law or of vehicular manslaughter in the second or first degree, as defined, respectively, in sections 125.12 and 125.13 and aggravated vehicular homicide as defined in section 125.14 of such law, within the preceding ten years, or (B) in violation of paragraph (b) of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article shall be guilty of a class E felony, and shall be punished by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
(ii) A person who operates a vehicle in violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of a violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of such section or of vehicular assault in the second or first degree, as defined, respectively, in sections 120.03 and 120.04 and aggravated vehicular assault as defined in section 120.04-a of the penal law or of vehicular manslaughter in the second or first degree, as defined, respectively, in sections 125.12 and 125.13 and aggravated vehicular homicide as defined in section 125.14 of such law, twice within the preceding ten years, shall be guilty of a class D felony, and shall be punished by a fine of not less than two thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
(ii-a) A person who operates a vehicle in violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of a violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of such section or of vehicular assault in the second or first degree, as defined, respectively, in sections 120.03 and 120.04 and aggravated vehicular assault as defined in section 120.04-a of the penal law or of vehicular manslaughter in the second or first degree, as defined, respectively, in sections 125.12 and 125.13 and aggravated vehicular homicide as defined in section 125.14 of such law, three or more times within the preceding fifteen years, shall be guilty of a class D felony, and shall be punished by a fine of not less than two thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
(iii) In addition to the imposition of any fine or period of imprisonment set forth in this paragraph, the court shall also sentence such person convicted of, or adjudicated a youthful offender for, a violation of subdivision two, two-a or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article to a period of probation or conditional discharge, as a condition of which it shall order such person to install and maintain, in accordance with the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-eight of this article, an ignition interlock device in any motor vehicle owned or operated by such person during the term of such probation or conditional discharge imposed for such violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and in no event for a period of less than twelve months; provided, however, that such period of interlock restriction shall terminate upon submission of proof that such person installed and maintained an ignition interlock device for at least six months, unless the court ordered such person to install and maintain a ignition interlock device for a longer period as authorized by this subparagraph and specified in such order. The period of interlock restriction shall commence from the earlier of the date of sentencing, or the date that an ignition interlock device was installed in advance of sentencing. Provided, however, the court may not authorize the operation of a motor vehicle by any person whose license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle has been revoked pursuant to the provisions of this section.
(d) Alcohol or drug related offenses; special vehicles. (1) Except as provided in subparagraph four of this paragraph, a violation of subdivision one, two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a taxicab as defined in section one hundred forty-eight-a of this chapter, or livery as defined in section one hundred twenty-one-e of this chapter, and such taxicab or livery is carrying a passenger for compensation, or a truck with a GVWR of more than eighteen thousand pounds but not more than twenty-six thousand pounds and which is not a commercial motor vehicle shall be a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than fifteen hundred dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A violation of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a taxicab as defined in section one hundred forty-eight-a of this chapter, or livery as defined in section one hundred twenty-one-e of this chapter, and such taxicab or livery is carrying a passenger for compensation, or a truck with a GVWR of more than eighteen thousand pounds but not more than twenty-six thousand pounds and which is not a commercial motor vehicle shall be a class E felony punishable by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
(1-a) A violation of subdivision one of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a school bus as defined in section one hundred forty-two of this chapter and such school bus is carrying at least one student passenger shall be a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than fifteen hundred dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
(2) A violation of subdivision five of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article shall be a traffic infraction punishable as provided in paragraph (a) of this subdivision. Except as provided in subparagraph three or five of this paragraph, a violation of subdivision one, two, three, four, four-a or six of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a commercial motor vehicle, or any motor vehicle registered or registerable under schedule F of subdivision seven of section four hundred one of this chapter shall be a misdemeanor. A violation of subdivision one, two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article shall be punishable by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than fifteen hundred dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A violation of subdivision six of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article shall be punishable by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than fifteen hundred dollars or by a period of imprisonment not to exceed one hundred eighty days, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A person who operates any such vehicle in violation of such subdivision six after having been convicted of a violation of subdivision one, two, two-a, three, four, four-a or six of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding five years shall be punishable by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than fifteen hundred dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A violation of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a commercial motor vehicle, or any motor vehicle registered or registerable under schedule F of subdivision seven of section four hundred one of this chapter shall be a class E felony punishable by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
(3) A violation of subdivision one of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than eighteen thousand pounds which contains flammable gas, radioactive materials or explosives shall be a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than fifteen hundred dollars or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
(4) (i) A person who operates a vehicle in violation of subdivision one, two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and which is punishable as provided in subparagraph one, one-a, two or three of this paragraph after having been convicted of a violation of any such subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and penalized under subparagraph one, one-a, two or three of this paragraph within the preceding ten years, shall be guilty of a class E felony, which shall be punishable by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A person who operates a vehicle in violation of subdivision six of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of two or more violations of subdivisions one, two, two-a, three, four, four-a or six of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding five years, any one of which was a misdemeanor, shall be guilty of a class E felony, which shall be punishable by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment. In addition, any person sentenced pursuant to this subparagraph shall be subject to the disqualification provided in subparagraph three of paragraph (e) of subdivision two of this section.
(ii) A person who operates a vehicle in violation of subdivision one, two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and which is punishable as provided in subparagraph one, one-a, two or three of this paragraph after having been convicted of a violation of any such subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and penalized under subparagraph one, one-a, two or three of this paragraph twice within the preceding ten years, shall be guilty of a class D felony, which shall be punishable by a fine of not less than two thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A person who operates a vehicle in violation of subdivision six of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of three or more violations of subdivisions one, two, two-a, three, four, four-a or six of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding five years, any one of which was a misdemeanor, shall be guilty of a class D felony, which shall be punishable by a fine of not less than two thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment. In addition, any person sentenced pursuant to this subparagraph shall be subject to the disqualification provided in subparagraph three of paragraph (e) of subdivision two of this section.
(4-a) A violation of subdivision two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a school bus as defined in section one hundred forty-two of this chapter and such school bus is carrying at least one student passenger shall be a class E felony punishable by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment. A violation of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a school bus as defined in section one hundred forty-two of this chapter and such school bus is carrying at least one student passenger shall be a class D felony punishable by a fine of not less than two thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or by a period of imprisonment as provided in the penal law, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
(5) A violation of subdivision two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than eighteen thousand pounds which contains flammable gas, radioactive materials or explosives, shall be a class E felony punishable by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars and such other penalties as provided for in the penal law; provided, however, that a conviction for such violation shall not be considered a predicate felony pursuant to section 70.06 of such law, or a previous felony conviction pursuant to section 70.10 of such law. A violation of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article wherein the violator is operating a motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than eighteen thousand pounds which contains flammable gas, radioactive materials or explosives, shall be a class D felony punishable by a fine of not less than two thousand nor more than ten thousand dollars and such other penalties as provided for in the penal law; provided, however, that a conviction for such violation shall not be considered a predicate felony pursuant to section 70.06 of such law, or a previous felony conviction pursuant to section 70.10 of such law.
(6) The sentences required to be imposed by subparagraph one, one-a, two, three, four, four-a or five of this paragraph shall be imposed notwithstanding any contrary provision of this chapter or the penal law.
(7) Nothing contained in this paragraph shall prohibit the imposition of a charge of any other felony set forth in this or any other provision of law for any acts arising out of the same incident.
(e) Certain sentences prohibited. Notwithstanding any provisions of the penal law, no judge or magistrate shall impose a sentence of unconditional discharge for a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article nor shall a judge or magistrate impose a sentence of conditional discharge or probation unless such conditional discharge or probation is accompanied by a sentence of a fine as provided in this subdivision.
(f) Where the court imposes a sentence for a violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, the court may require the defendant, as a part of or as a condition of such sentence, to attend a single session conducted by a victims impact program. For purposes of this section, "victims impact program" means a program operated by a county, a city with a population of one million or more, by a not-for-profit organization authorized by any such county or city, or a combination thereof, in which presentations are made concerning the impact of operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or drugs to one or more persons who have been convicted of such offenses. A description of any such program shall be filed with the commissioner and with the coordinator of the special traffic options program for driving while intoxicated established pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-seven of this article, and shall be made available to the court upon request. Nothing contained herein shall be construed to require any governmental entity to create such a victim impact program.
(g) The office of probation and correctional alternatives shall recommend to the commissioner of the division of criminal justice services regulations governing the monitoring of compliance by persons ordered to install and maintain ignition interlock devices to provide standards for monitoring by departments of probation, and options for monitoring of compliance by such persons, that counties may adopt as an alternative to monitoring by a department of probation.
1-a. Additional penalties. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (b) of this subdivision, a person who operates a vehicle in violation of subdivision two or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of a violation of subdivision two or three of such section within the preceding five years shall, in addition to any other penalties which may be imposed pursuant to subdivision one of this section, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of five days or, as an alternative to such imprisonment, be required to perform thirty days of service for a public or not-for-profit corporation, association, institution or agency as set forth in paragraph (h) of subdivision two of section 65.10 of the penal law as a condition of sentencing for such violation. Notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph, a sentence of a term of imprisonment of five days or more pursuant to the provisions of subdivision one of this section shall be deemed to be in compliance with this subdivision.
(b) A person who operates a vehicle in violation of subdivision two or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted on two or more occasions of a violation of any of such subdivisions within the preceding five years shall, in addition to any other penalties which may be imposed pursuant to subdivision one of this section, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of ten days or, as an alternative to such imprisonment, be required to perform sixty days of service for a public or not-for-profit corporation, association, institution or agency as set forth in paragraph (h) of subdivision two of section 65.10 of the penal law as a condition of sentencing for such violation. Notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph, a sentence of a term of imprisonment of ten days or more pursuant to the provisions of subdivision one of this section shall be deemed to be in compliance with this subdivision.
(c) A court sentencing a person pursuant to paragraph (a) or (b) of this subdivision shall: (i) order the installation of an ignition interlock device approved pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-eight of this article in any motor vehicle owned or operated by the person so sentenced. Such devices shall remain installed during any period of license revocation required to be imposed pursuant to paragraph (b) of subdivision two of this section, and, upon the termination of such revocation period, for an additional period as determined by the court; and (ii) order that such person receive an assessment of the degree of their alcohol or substance abuse and dependency pursuant to the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-eight-a of this article. Where such assessment indicates the need for treatment, such court is authorized to impose treatment as a condition of such sentence except that such court shall impose treatment as a condition of a sentence of probation or conditional discharge pursuant to the provisions of subdivision three of section eleven hundred ninety-eight-a of this article. Any person ordered to install an ignition interlock device pursuant to this paragraph shall be subject to the provisions of subdivisions four, five, seven, eight and nine of section eleven hundred ninety-eight of this article.
(d) Confidentiality of records. The provisions of subdivision six of section eleven hundred ninety-eight-a of this article shall apply to the records and content of all assessments and treatment conducted pursuant to this subdivision.
2. License sanctions. (a) Suspensions. Except as otherwise provided in this subdivision, a license shall be suspended and a registration may be suspended for the following periods:
(1) Driving while ability impaired. Ninety days, where the holder is convicted of a violation of subdivision one of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article;
(2) Persons under the age of twenty-one; driving after having consumed alcohol. Six months, where the holder has been found to have operated a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol in violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article where such person was under the age of twenty-one at the time of commission of such violation.
(b) Revocations. A license shall be revoked and a registration may be revoked for the following minimum periods:
(1) Driving while ability impaired; prior offense. Six months, where the holder is convicted of a violation of subdivision one of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article committed within five years of a conviction for a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article.
(1-a) Driving while ability impaired; misdemeanor offense. Six months, where the holder is convicted of a violation of subdivision one of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article committed within ten years of two previous convictions for a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article.
(2) Driving while intoxicated or while ability impaired by drugs or while ability impaired by the combined influence of drugs or of alcohol and any drug or drugs; aggravated driving while intoxicated. Six months, where the holder is convicted of a violation of subdivision two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article. One year where the holder is convicted of a violation of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article.
(3) Driving while intoxicated or while ability impaired by drugs or while ability impaired by the combined influence of drugs or of alcohol and any drug or drugs; aggravated driving while intoxicated; prior offense. One year, where the holder is convicted of a violation of subdivision two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article committed within ten years of a conviction for a violation of subdivision two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article. Eighteen months, where the holder is convicted of a violation of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article committed within ten years of a conviction for a violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article; or where the holder is convicted of a violation of subdivision two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article committed within ten years of a conviction for a violation of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article.
(4) Special vehicles other than school buses. One year, where the holder is convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and is sentenced pursuant to subparagraph one of paragraph (d) of subdivision one of this section.
(4-a) School buses. (A) One year, where the holder is convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, such violation was committed while the holder was driving a school bus, and the holder is sentenced pursuant to subparagraph one, one-a or four-a of paragraph (d) of subdivision one of this section.
(B) Three years where the holder is convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, such violation was committed while the holder was driving a school bus, and the holder is sentenced pursuant to subparagraph four of paragraph (d) of subdivision one of this section.
(C) Notwithstanding the provisions of the opening paragraph of this paragraph (b), the commissioner shall not revoke the registration of a school bus driven in violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article.
(5) Holder of a commercial driver's license. (i) Except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph, one year where the holder of a commercial driver's license is convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or if such holder is convicted of an offense consisting of operating a motor vehicle under the influence of alcohol or drugs where such conviction was had outside of this state.
(ii) Three years, where the holder is convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, such violation was committed while the holder was operating a commercial motor vehicle transporting hazardous materials or if such holder is convicted of an offense consisting of operating a motor vehicle under the influence of alcohol or drugs where such conviction was had outside of this state.
(6) Persons under the age of twenty-one. One year, where the holder is convicted of or adjudicated a youthful offender for a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, or is convicted of or receives a youthful offender or other juvenile adjudication for an offense consisting of operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor where the conviction, or youthful offender or other juvenile adjudication was had outside this state, where such person was under the age of twenty-one at the time of commission of such violation.
(7) Persons under the age of twenty-one; prior offense or finding. One year or until the holder reaches the age of twenty-one, whichever is the greater period of time, where the holder has been found to have operated a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol in violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article, or is convicted of, or adjudicated a youthful offender for, a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, or is convicted of or receives a youthful offender or juvenile adjudication for an offense consisting of operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor where the conviction, or youthful offender or other juvenile adjudication was had outside this state, where such person was under the age of twenty-one at the time of commission of such violation and has previously been found to have operated a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol in violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article, or has previously been convicted of, or adjudicated a youthful offender for, any violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article not arising out of the same incident, or has previously been convicted of or received a youthful offender or juvenile adjudication for an offense consisting of operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor when the conviction, or youthful offender or other juvenile adjudication was had outside this state and not arising out of the same.
(8) Out-of-state offenses. Except as provided in subparagraph six or seven of this paragraph: (i) ninety days, where the holder is convicted of an offense consisting of operating a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor where the conviction was had outside this state and (ii) six months, where the holder is convicted of, or receives a youthful offender or other juvenile adjudication, which would have been a misdemeanor or felony if committed by an adult, in connection with, an offense consisting of operating a motor vehicle under the influence of or while impaired by the use of drugs where the conviction or youthful offender or other juvenile adjudication was had outside this state.
(9) Effect of rehabilitation program. No period of revocation arising out of subparagraph four, five, six or seven of this paragraph may be set aside by the commissioner for the reason that such person was a participant in the alcohol and drug rehabilitation program set forth in section eleven hundred ninety-six of this chapter.
(10) Action required by commissioner. Where a court fails to impose, or incorrectly imposes, a suspension or revocation required by this subdivision, the commissioner shall, upon receipt of a certificate of conviction filed pursuant to section five hundred fourteen of this chapter, impose such mandated suspension or revocation, which shall supersede any such order which the court may have imposed.
(11) Limitation of certain mandatory revocations. Where revocation is mandatory pursuant to subparagraph five of this paragraph for a conviction of a violation of subdivision five of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, such revocation shall be issued only by the commissioner and shall be applicable only to that portion of the holder's driver's license or privilege which permits the operation of commercial motor vehicles, and the commissioner shall immediately issue a license, other than a commercial driver's license, to such person provided that such person is otherwise eligible to receive such license and further provided that issuing a license to such person does not create a substantial traffic safety hazard.
(12) Permanent revocation. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter to the contrary, whenever a revocation is imposed upon a person for the refusal to submit to a chemical test pursuant to the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article or conviction for any violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article for which a sentence of imprisonment may be imposed, and such person has: (i) within the previous four years been twice convicted of any provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or a violation of the penal law for which a violation of such section eleven hundred ninety-two is an essential element and at least one such conviction was for a crime, or has twice been found to have refused to submit to a chemical test pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article, or has any combination of two such convictions and findings of refusal not arising out of the same incident; or (ii) within the previous eight years been convicted three times of any provision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article for which a sentence of imprisonment may be imposed or a violation of the penal law for which a violation of such section eleven hundred ninety-two is an essential element and at least two such convictions were for crimes, or has been found, on three separate occasions, to have refused to submit to a chemical test pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article, or has any combination of such convictions and findings of refusal not arising out of the same incident, such revocation shall be permanent.
(b) The permanent driver's license revocation required by clause (a) of this subparagraph shall be waived by the commissioner after a period of five years has expired since the imposition of such permanent revocation, provided that during such five-year period such person has not been found to have refused a chemical test pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article while operating a motor vehicle and has not been convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or section five hundred eleven of this chapter or a violation of the penal law for which a violation of any subdivision of such section eleven hundred ninety-two is an essential element and either:
(i) that such person provides acceptable documentation to the commissioner that such person has voluntarily enrolled in and successfully completed an appropriate rehabilitation program; or
(ii) that such person is granted a certificate of relief from disabilities or a certificate of good conduct pursuant to article twenty-three of the correction law.
Provided, however, that the commissioner may, on a case by case basis, refuse to restore a license which otherwise would be restored pursuant to this item, in the interest of the public safety and welfare.
(c) For revocations imposed pursuant to clause (a) of this subparagraph, the commissioner may adopt rules to permit conditional or restricted operation of a motor vehicle by any such person after a mandatory revocation period of not less than three years subject to such criteria, terms and conditions as established by the commissioner.
(d) Upon (i) a finding of refusal after having been convicted three times within four years of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or of the penal law for which a violation of any subdivision of such section eleven hundred ninety-two is an essential element or any combination of three such convictions not arising out of the same incident within four years or (ii) a fourth conviction of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of any such subdivision of such section eleven hundred ninety-two or of the penal law for which a violation of any of such subdivisions of such section eleven hundred ninety-two is an essential element or any combination of three such convictions not arising out of the same incident within four years or
(iii) a finding of refusal after having been convicted four times within eight years of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or of the penal law for which a violation of any of such subdivisions of such section eleven hundred ninety-two is an essential element or any combination of four such convictions not arising out of the same incident within eight years or (iv) a fifth conviction of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of such subdivision or of the penal law for which a violation of any of such subdivisions of such section eleven hundred ninety-two is an essential element or any combination of four such convictions not arising out of the same incident within eight years, such revocation shall be permanent.
(e) The permanent driver's license revocation required by clause (d) of this subparagraph may be waived by the commissioner after a period of eight years has expired since the imposition of such permanent revocation provided:
(i) that during such eight-year period such person has not been found to have refused a chemical test pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article while operating a motor vehicle and has not been convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or section five hundred eleven of this chapter or a violation of the penal law for which a violation of any such subdivisions of such section eleven hundred ninety-two is an essential element; and
(ii) that such person provides acceptable documentation to the commissioner that such person has voluntarily enrolled in and successfully completed an appropriate rehabilitation program; and
(iii) after such documentation is accepted, that such person is granted a certificate of relief from disabilities or a certificate of good conduct pursuant to article twenty-three of the correction law. Notwithstanding the provisions of this clause, nothing contained in this clause shall be deemed to require the commissioner to restore a license to an applicant who otherwise has complied with the requirements of this item, in the interest of the public safety and welfare.
(f) Nothing contained in this subparagraph shall be deemed to reduce a license revocation period imposed pursuant to any other provision of law.
(c) Reissuance of licenses; restrictions. (1) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, where a license is revoked pursuant to paragraph (b) of this subdivision, no new license shall be issued after the expiration of the minimum period specified in such paragraph, except in the discretion of the commissioner.
(2) Where a license is revoked pursuant to subparagraph two, three or eight of paragraph (b) of this subdivision for a violation of subdivision four of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, and where the individual does not have a driver's license or the individual's license was suspended at the time of conviction or youthful offender or other juvenile adjudication, the commissioner shall not issue a new license nor restore the former license for a period of six months after such individual would otherwise have become eligible to obtain a new license or to have the former license restored; provided, however, that during such delay period the commissioner may issue a restricted use license pursuant to section five hundred thirty of this chapter.
(3) In no event shall a new license be issued where a person has been twice convicted of a violation of subdivision three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or of driving while intoxicated or of driving while ability is impaired by the use of a drug or of driving while ability is impaired by the combined influence of drugs or of alcohol and any drug or drugs where physical injury, as defined in section 10.00 of the penal law, has resulted from such offense in each instance.
(d) Suspension or revocation; sentencing. (1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in a certificate of relief from disabilities or a certificate of good conduct issued pursuant to article twenty-three of the correction law, where a suspension or revocation, other than a revocation required to be issued by the commissioner, is mandatory pursuant to paragraph (a) or (b) of this subdivision, the magistrate, justice or judge shall issue an order suspending or revoking such license upon sentencing, and the license holder shall surrender such license to the court. Except as hereinafter provided, such suspension or revocation shall take effect immediately.
(2) Except where the license holder has been charged with a violation of article one hundred twenty or one hundred twenty-five of the penal law arising out of the same incident or convicted of such violation or a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding five years, the judge, justice or magistrate may issue an order making said license suspension or revocation take effect twenty days after the date of sentencing. The license holder shall be given a copy of said order permitting the continuation of driving privileges for twenty days after sentencing, if granted by the court. The court shall forward to the commissioner the certificates required in sections five hundred thirteen and five hundred fourteen of this chapter, along with a copy of any order issued pursuant to this paragraph and the license, within ninety-six hours of sentencing.
(e) Special provisions. (1) Suspension pending prosecution; procedure. a. Without notice, pending any prosecution, the court shall suspend such license, where the holder has been charged with a violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and either (i) a violation of a felony under article one hundred twenty or one hundred twenty-five of the penal law arising out of the same incident, or (ii) has been convicted of any violation under section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding five years.
b. The suspension under the preceding clause shall occur no later than twenty days after the holder's first appearance before the court on the charges or at the conclusion of all proceedings required for the arraignment. In order for the court to impose such suspension it must find that the accusatory instrument conforms to the requirements of section 100.40 of the criminal procedure law and there exists reasonable cause to believe that the holder operated a motor vehicle in violation of subdivision two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and either (i) the person had been convicted of any violation under such section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding five years; or (ii) that the holder committed a violation of a felony under article one hundred twenty or one hundred twenty-five of the penal law. At such time the holder shall be entitled to an opportunity to make a statement regarding the enumerated issues and to present evidence tending to rebut the court's findings. Where such suspension is imposed upon a pending charge of a violation of a felony under article one hundred twenty or one hundred twenty-five of the penal law and the holder has requested a hearing pursuant to article one hundred eighty of the criminal procedure law, the court shall conduct such hearing. If upon completion of the hearing, the court fails to find that there is reasonable cause to believe that the holder committed a felony under article one hundred twenty or one hundred twenty-five of the penal law and the holder has not been previously convicted of any violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the preceding five years the court shall promptly notify the commissioner and direct restoration of such license to the license holder unless such license is suspended or revoked pursuant to any other provision of this chapter.
(2) Bail forfeiture. A license shall be suspended where the holder forfeits bail upon a charge of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article. Such suspension shall not be terminated until the holder submits to the jurisdiction of the court in which the bail was forfeited.
(3) Permanent disqualification from operating certain motor vehicles.
a. Except as otherwise provided herein, in addition to any revocation set forth in subparagraph four or five of paragraph (b) of this subdivision, any person sentenced pursuant to subparagraph three of paragraph (d) of subdivision one of this section shall be permanently disqualified from operating any vehicle set forth in such paragraph. In addition, the commissioner shall not issue such person a license valid for the operation of any vehicle set forth therein by such person. The commissioner may waive such disqualification and prohibition hereinbefore provided after a period of five years has expired from such sentencing provided:
(i) that during such five year period such person has not violated any of the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or any alcohol or drug related traffic offense in this state or in any jurisdiction outside this state;
(ii) that such person provides acceptable documentation to the commissioner that such person is not in need of alcohol or drug treatment or has satisfactorily completed a prescribed course of such treatment; and
(iii) after such documentation is accepted, that such person is granted a certificate of relief from disabilities or a certificate of good conduct pursuant to article twenty-three of the correction law.
b. Any person who holds a commercial driver's license and is convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article who has had a prior finding of refusal to submit to a chemical test pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article or has had a prior conviction of any of the following offenses: any violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article; any violation of subdivision one or two of section six hundred of this chapter; or has a prior conviction of any felony involving the use of a motor vehicle pursuant to paragraph (a) of subdivision one of section five hundred ten-a of this chapter, shall be permanently disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle. The commissioner may waive such disqualification and prohibition hereinbefore provided after a period of ten years has expired from such sentence provided:
(i) that during such ten year period such person has not been found to have refused a chemical test pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article while operating a motor vehicle and has not been convicted of any one of the following offenses while operating a motor vehicle: any violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article; any violation of subdivision one or two of section six hundred of this chapter; or has a prior conviction of any felony involving the use of a motor vehicle pursuant to paragraph (a) of subdivision one of section five hundred ten-a of this chapter;
(ii) that such person provides acceptable documentation to the commissioner that such person is not in need of alcohol or drug treatment or has satisfactorily completed a prescribed course of such treatment; and
(iii) after such documentation is accepted, that such person is granted a certificate of relief from disabilities or a certificate of good conduct pursuant to article twenty-three of the correction law.
c. Upon a third finding of refusal and/or conviction of any of the offenses which require a permanent commercial driver's license revocation, such permanent revocation may not be waived by the commissioner under any circumstances.
(4) Youthful offenders. Where a youth is determined to be a youthful offender, following a conviction of a violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article for which a license suspension or revocation is mandatory, the court shall impose such suspension or revocation as is otherwise required upon conviction and, further, shall notify the commissioner of said suspension or revocation and its finding that said violator is granted youthful offender status as is required pursuant to section five hundred thirteen of this chapter.
(5) Probation. When a license to operate a motor vehicle has been revoked pursuant to this chapter, and the holder has been sentenced to a period of probation pursuant to section 65.00 of the penal law for a violation of any provision of this chapter, or any other provision of the laws of this state, and a condition of such probation is that the holder thereof not operate a motor vehicle or not apply for a license to operate a motor vehicle during the period of such condition of probation, the commissioner may not restore such license until the period of the condition of probation has expired.
(6) Application for new license. Where a license has been revoked pursuant to paragraph (b) of this subdivision, or where the holder is subject to a condition of probation as provided in subparagraph five of this paragraph, application for a new license may be made within forty-five days prior to the expiration of such minimum period of revocation or condition of probation, whichever expires last.
(7) Suspension pending prosecution; excessive blood alcohol content.
a. Except as provided in clause a-1 of this subparagraph, a court shall suspend a driver's license, pending prosecution, of any person charged with a violation of subdivision two, two-a, three or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article who, at the time of arrest, is alleged to have had .08 of one percent or more by weight of alcohol in such driver's blood as shown by chemical analysis of blood, breath, urine or saliva, made pursuant to subdivision two or three of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article.
a-1. A court shall suspend a class DJ or MJ learner's permit or a class DJ or MJ driver's license, pending prosecution, of any person who has been charged with a violation of subdivision one, two, two-a and/or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article.
b. The suspension occurring under clause a of this subparagraph shall occur no later than at the conclusion of all proceedings required for the arraignment and the suspension occurring under clause a-1 of this subparagraph shall occur immediately after the holder's first appearance before the court on the charge which shall, whenever possible, be the next regularly scheduled session of the court after the arrest or at the conclusion of all proceedings required for the arraignment; provided, however, that if the results of any test administered pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article are not available within such time period, the complainant police officer or other public servant shall transmit such results to the court at the time they become available, and the court shall, as soon as practicable following the receipt of such results and in compliance with the requirements of this subparagraph, suspend such license. In order for the court to impose such suspension it must find that the accusatory instrument conforms to the requirements of section 100.40 of the criminal procedure law and there exists reasonable cause to believe either that (a) the holder operated a motor vehicle while such holder had .08 of one percent or more by weight of alcohol in his or her blood as was shown by chemical analysis of such person's blood, breath, urine or saliva, made pursuant to the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article or (b) the person was the holder of a class DJ or MJ learner's permit or a class DJ or MJ driver's license and operated a motor vehicle while such holder was in violation of subdivision one, two and/or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article. At the time of such license suspension the holder shall be entitled to an opportunity to make a statement regarding these two issues and to present evidence tending to rebut the court's findings.
c. Nothing contained in this subparagraph shall be construed to prohibit or limit a court from imposing any other suspension pending prosecution required or permitted by law.
d. Notwithstanding any contrary provision of this chapter, if any suspension occurring under this subparagraph has been in effect for a period of thirty days, the holder may be issued a conditional license, in accordance with section eleven hundred ninety-six of this article, provided the holder of such license is otherwise eligible to receive such conditional license. A conditional license issued pursuant to this subparagraph shall not be valid for the operation of a commercial motor vehicle. The commissioner shall prescribe by regulation the procedures for the issuance of such conditional license.
e. If the court finds that the suspension imposed pursuant to this subparagraph will result in extreme hardship, the court must issue such suspension, but may grant a hardship privilege, which shall be issued on a form prescribed by the commissioner. For the purposes of this clause, "extreme hardship" shall mean the inability to obtain alternative means of travel to or from the licensee's employment, or to or from necessary medical treatment for the licensee or a member of the licensee's household, or if the licensee is a matriculating student enrolled in an accredited school, college or university travel to or from such licensee's school, college or university if such travel is necessary for the completion of the educational degree or certificate. The burden of proving extreme hardship shall be on the licensee who may present material and relevant evidence. A finding of extreme hardship may not be based solely upon the testimony of the licensee. In no event shall arraignment be adjourned or otherwise delayed more than three business days solely for the purpose of allowing the licensee to present evidence of extreme hardship. The court shall set forth upon the record, or otherwise set forth in writing, the factual basis for such finding. The hardship privilege shall permit the operation of a vehicle only for travel to or from the licensee's employment, or to or from necessary medical treatment for the licensee or a member of the licensee's household, or if the licensee is a matriculating student enrolled in an accredited school, college or university travel to or from such licensee's school, college or university if such travel is necessary for the completion of the educational degree or certificate. A hardship privilege shall not be valid for the operation of a commercial motor vehicle.
(f) Notice of charges to parent or guardian. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision two of section eighteen hundred seven of this chapter, upon the first scheduled appearance of any person under eighteen years of age who resides within the household of his or her parent or guardian upon a charge of a violation of subdivision one, two and/or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, the local criminal court before which such first appearance is scheduled shall forthwith transmit written notice of such appearance or failure to make such appearance to the parent or guardian of such minor person; provided, however, that if an arraignment and conviction of such person follows such appearance upon the same day, or in case such person waives arraignment and enters a plea of guilty to the offense as charged in accordance with the provisions of section eighteen hundred five of this chapter, transmittal of notice of his or her conviction as provided in section five hundred fourteen of this chapter shall be sufficient and the notice required by this paragraph need not be given; provided further that the failure of a local criminal court to transmit the notice required by this paragraph shall in no manner affect the validity of a conviction subsequently obtained.

§ 1194. Arrest and testing. 1. Arrest and field testing. (a) Arrest. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 140.10 of the criminal procedure law, a police officer may, without a warrant, arrest a person, in case of a violation of subdivision one of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, if such violation is coupled with an accident or collision in which such person is involved, which in fact has been committed, though not in the police officer's presence, when the officer has reasonable cause to believe that the violation was committed by such person.
(b) Field testing. Every person operating a motor vehicle which has been involved in an accident or which is operated in violation of any of the provisions of this chapter shall, at the request of a police officer, submit to a breath test to be administered by the police officer. If such test indicates that such operator has consumed alcohol, the police officer may request such operator to submit to a chemical test in the manner set forth in subdivision two of this section.
2. Chemical tests. (a) When authorized. Any person who operates a motor vehicle in this state shall be deemed to have given consent to a chemical test of one or more of the following: breath, blood, urine, or saliva, for the purpose of determining the alcoholic and/or drug content of the blood provided that such test is administered by or at the direction of a police officer with respect to a chemical test of breath, urine or saliva or, with respect to a chemical test of blood, at the direction of a police officer:
(1) having reasonable grounds to believe such person to have been operating in violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and within two hours after such person has been placed under arrest for any such violation; or having reasonable grounds to believe such person to have been operating in violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article and within two hours after the stop of such person for any such violation,
(2) within two hours after a breath test, as provided in paragraph (b) of subdivision one of this section, indicates that alcohol has been consumed by such person and in accordance with the rules and regulations established by the police force of which the officer is a member;
(3) for the purposes of this paragraph, "reasonable grounds" to believe that a person has been operating a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol in violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article shall be determined by viewing the totality of circumstances surrounding the incident which, when taken together, indicate that the operator was driving in violation of such subdivision. Such circumstances may include any visible or behavioral indication of alcohol consumption by the operator, the existence of an open container containing or having contained an alcoholic beverage in or around the vehicle driven by the operator, or any other evidence surrounding the circumstances of the incident which indicates that the operator has been operating a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol at the time of the incident; or
(4) notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, no person under the age of twenty-one shall be arrested for an alleged violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article. However, a person under the age of twenty-one for whom a chemical test is authorized pursuant to this paragraph may be temporarily detained by the police solely for the purpose of requesting or administering such chemical test whenever arrest without a warrant for a petty offense would be authorized in accordance with the provisions of section 140.10 of the criminal procedure law or paragraph (a) of subdivision one of this section.
(b) Report of refusal. (1) If: (A) such person having been placed under arrest; or (B) after a breath test indicates the presence of alcohol in the person's system; or (C) with regard to a person under the age of twenty-one, there are reasonable grounds to believe that such person has been operating a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol in violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article; and having thereafter been requested to submit to such chemical test and having been informed that the person's license or permit to drive and any non-resident operating privilege shall be immediately suspended and subsequently revoked, or, for operators under the age of twenty-one for whom there are reasonable grounds to believe that such operator has been operating a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol in violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article, shall be revoked for refusal to submit to such chemical test or any portion thereof, whether or not the person is found guilty of the charge for which such person is arrested or detained, refuses to submit to such chemical test or any portion thereof, unless a court order has been granted pursuant to subdivision three of this section, the test shall not be given and a written report of such refusal shall be immediately made by the police officer before whom such refusal was made. Such report may be verified by having the report sworn to, or by affixing to such report a form notice that false statements made therein are punishable as a class A misdemeanor pursuant to section 210.45 of the penal law and such form notice together with the subscription of the deponent shall constitute a verification of the report.
(2) The report of the police officer shall set forth reasonable grounds to believe such arrested person or such detained person under the age of twenty-one had been driving in violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two or eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article, that said person had refused to submit to such chemical test, and that no chemical test was administered pursuant to the requirements of subdivision three of this section. The report shall be presented to the court upon arraignment of an arrested person, provided, however, in the case of a person under the age of twenty-one, for whom a test was authorized pursuant to the provisions of subparagraph two or three of paragraph (a) of this subdivision, and who has not been placed under arrest for a violation of any of the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, such report shall be forwarded to the commissioner within forty-eight hours in a manner to be prescribed by the commissioner, and all subsequent proceedings with regard to refusal to submit to such chemical test by such person shall be as set forth in subdivision three of section eleven hundred ninety-four-a of this article.
(3) For persons placed under arrest for a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, the license or permit to drive and any non-resident operating privilege shall, upon the basis of such written report, be temporarily suspended by the court without notice pending the determination of a hearing as provided in paragraph (c) of this subdivision. Copies of such report must be transmitted by the court to the commissioner and such transmittal may not be waived even with the consent of all the parties. Such report shall be forwarded to the commissioner within forty-eight hours of such arraignment.
(4) The court or the police officer, in the case of a person under the age of twenty-one alleged to be driving after having consumed alcohol, shall provide such person with a scheduled hearing date, a waiver form, and such other information as may be required by the commissioner. If a hearing, as provided for in paragraph (c) of this subdivision, or subdivision three of section eleven hundred ninety-four-a of this article, is waived by such person, the commissioner shall immediately revoke the license, permit, or non-resident operating privilege, as of the date of receipt of such waiver in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (d) of this subdivision.
(c) Hearings. Any person whose license or permit to drive or any non-resident driving privilege has been suspended pursuant to paragraph (b) of this subdivision is entitled to a hearing in accordance with a hearing schedule to be promulgated by the commissioner. If the department fails to provide for such hearing fifteen days after the date of the arraignment of the arrested person, the license, permit to drive or non-resident operating privilege of such person shall be reinstated pending a hearing pursuant to this section. The hearing shall be limited to the following issues: (1) did the police officer have reasonable grounds to believe that such person had been driving in violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article; (2) did the police officer make a lawful arrest of such person; (3) was such person given sufficient warning, in clear or unequivocal language, prior to such refusal that such refusal to submit to such chemical test or any portion thereof, would result in the immediate suspension and subsequent revocation of such person's license or operating privilege whether or not such person is found guilty of the charge for which the arrest was made; and (4) did such person refuse to submit to such chemical test or any portion thereof. If, after such hearing, the hearing officer, acting on behalf of the commissioner, finds on any one of said issues in the negative, the hearing officer shall immediately terminate any suspension arising from such refusal. If, after such hearing, the hearing officer, acting on behalf of the commissioner finds all of the issues in the affirmative, such officer shall immediately revoke the license or permit to drive or any non-resident operating privilege in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (d) of this subdivision. A person who has had a license or permit to drive or non-resident operating privilege suspended or revoked pursuant to this subdivision may appeal the findings of the hearing officer in accordance with the provisions of article three-A of this chapter. Any person may waive the right to a hearing under this section. Failure by such person to appear for the scheduled hearing shall constitute a waiver of such hearing, provided, however, that such person may petition the commissioner for a new hearing which shall be held as soon as practicable.
(d) Sanctions. (1) Revocations. a. Any license which has been revoked pursuant to paragraph (c) of this subdivision shall not be restored for at least one year after such revocation, nor thereafter, except in the discretion of the commissioner. However, no such license shall be restored for at least eighteen months after such revocation, nor thereafter except in the discretion of the commissioner, in any case where the person has had a prior revocation resulting from refusal to submit to a chemical test, or has been convicted of or found to be in violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two or section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article not arising out of the same incident, within the five years immediately preceding the date of such revocation; provided, however, a prior finding that a person under the age of twenty-one has refused to submit to a chemical test pursuant to subdivision three of section eleven hundred ninety-four-a of this article shall have the same effect as a prior finding of a refusal pursuant to this subdivision solely for the purpose of determining the length of any license suspension or revocation required to be imposed under any provision of this article, provided that the subsequent offense or refusal is committed or occurred prior to the expiration of the retention period for such prior refusal as set forth in paragraph (k) of subdivision one of section two hundred one of this chapter.
b. Any license which has been revoked pursuant to paragraph (c) of this subdivision or pursuant to subdivision three of section eleven hundred ninety-four-a of this article, where the holder was under the age of twenty-one years at the time of such refusal, shall not be restored for at least one year, nor thereafter, except in the discretion of the commissioner. Where such person under the age of twenty-one years has a prior finding, conviction or youthful offender adjudication resulting from a violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two or section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article, not arising from the same incident, such license shall not be restored for at least one year or until such person reaches the age of twenty-one years, whichever is the greater period of time, nor thereafter, except in the discretion of the commissioner.
c. Any commercial driver's license which has been revoked pursuant to paragraph (c) of this subdivision based upon a finding of refusal to submit to a chemical test, where such finding occurs within or outside of this state, shall not be restored for at least eighteen months after such revocation, nor thereafter, except in the discretion of the commissioner, but shall not be restored for at least three years after such revocation, nor thereafter, except in the discretion of the commissioner, if the holder of such license was operating a commercial motor vehicle transporting hazardous materials at the time of such refusal. However, such person shall be permanently disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle in any case where the holder has a prior finding of refusal to submit to a chemical test pursuant to this section or has a prior conviction of any of the following offenses: any violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article; any violation of subdivision one or two of section six hundred of this chapter; or has a prior conviction of any felony involving the use of a motor vehicle pursuant to paragraph (a) of subdivision one of section five hundred ten-a of this chapter. Provided that the commissioner may waive such permanent revocation after a period of ten years has expired from such revocation provided:
(i) that during such ten year period such person has not been found to have refused a chemical test pursuant to this section and has not been convicted of any one of the following offenses: any violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article; refusal to submit to a chemical test pursuant to this section; any violation of subdivision one or two of section six hundred of this chapter; or has a prior conviction of any felony involving the use of a motor vehicle pursuant to paragraph (a) of subdivision one of section five hundred ten-a of this chapter;
(ii) that such person provides acceptable documentation to the commissioner that such person is not in need of alcohol or drug treatment or has satisfactorily completed a prescribed course of such treatment; and
(iii) after such documentation is accepted, that such person is granted a certificate of relief from disabilities or a certificate of good conduct pursuant to article twenty-three of the correction law by the court in which such person was last penalized.
d. Upon a third finding of refusal and/or conviction of any of the offenses which require a permanent commercial driver's license revocation, such permanent revocation may not be waived by the commissioner under any circumstances.
(2) Civil penalties. Except as otherwise provided, any person whose license, permit to drive, or any non-resident operating privilege is revoked pursuant to the provisions of this section shall also be liable for a civil penalty in the amount of five hundred dollars except that if such revocation is a second or subsequent revocation pursuant to this section issued within a five year period, or such person has been convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article within the past five years not arising out of the same incident, the civil penalty shall be in the amount of seven hundred fifty dollars. Any person whose license is revoked pursuant to the provisions of this section based upon a finding of refusal to submit to a chemical test while operating a commercial motor vehicle shall also be liable for a civil penalty of five hundred fifty dollars except that if such person has previously been found to have refused a chemical test pursuant to this section while operating a commercial motor vehicle or has a prior conviction of any of the following offenses while operating a commercial motor vehicle: any violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article; any violation of subdivision two of section six hundred of this chapter; or has a prior conviction of any felony involving the use of a commercial motor vehicle pursuant to paragraph (a) of subdivision one of section five hundred ten-a of this chapter, then the civil penalty shall be seven hundred fifty dollars. No new driver's license or permit shall be issued, or non-resident operating privilege restored to such person unless such penalty has been paid. All penalties collected by the department pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be the property of the state and shall be paid into the general fund of the state treasury.
(3) Effect of rehabilitation program. No period of revocation arising out of this section may be set aside by the commissioner for the reason that such person was a participant in the alcohol and drug rehabilitation program set forth in section eleven hundred ninety-six of this article.
(e) Regulations. The commissioner shall promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary to effectuate the provisions of subdivisions one and two of this section.
(f) Evidence. Evidence of a refusal to submit to such chemical test or any portion thereof shall be admissible in any trial, proceeding or hearing based upon a violation of the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article but only upon a showing that the person was given sufficient warning, in clear and unequivocal language, of the effect of such refusal and that the person persisted in the refusal.
(g) Results. Upon the request of the person who was tested, the results of such test shall be made available to such person.
3. Compulsory chemical tests. (a) Court ordered chemical tests. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision two of this section, no person who operates a motor vehicle in this state may refuse to submit to a chemical test of one or more of the following: breath, blood, urine or saliva, for the purpose of determining the alcoholic and/or drug content of the blood when a court order for such chemical test has been issued in accordance with the provisions of this subdivision.
(b) When authorized. Upon refusal by any person to submit to a chemical test or any portion thereof as described above, the test shall not be given unless a police officer or a district attorney, as defined in subdivision thirty-two of section 1.20 of the criminal procedure law, requests and obtains a court order to compel a person to submit to a chemical test to determine the alcoholic or drug content of the person's blood upon a finding of reasonable cause to believe that:
(1) such person was the operator of a motor vehicle and in the course of such operation a person other than the operator was killed or suffered serious physical injury as defined in section 10.00 of the penal law; and
(2) a. either such person operated the vehicle in violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, or
b. a breath test administered by a police officer in accordance with paragraph (b) of subdivision one of this section indicates that alcohol has been consumed by such person; and
(3) such person has been placed under lawful arrest; and
(4) such person has refused to submit to a chemical test or any portion thereof, requested in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (a) of subdivision two of this section or is unable to give consent to such a test.
(c) Reasonable cause; definition. For the purpose of this subdivision "reasonable cause" shall be determined by viewing the totality of circumstances surrounding the incident which, when taken together, indicate that the operator was driving in violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article. Such circumstances may include, but are not limited to: evidence that the operator was operating a motor vehicle in violation of any provision of this article or any other moving violation at the time of the incident; any visible indication of alcohol or drug consumption or impairment by the operator; the existence of an open container containing an alcoholic beverage in or around the vehicle driven by the operator; any other evidence surrounding the circumstances of the incident which indicates that the operator has been operating a motor vehicle while impaired by the consumption of alcohol or drugs or intoxicated at the time of the incident.
(d) Court order; procedure. (1) An application for a court order to compel submission to a chemical test or any portion thereof, may be made to any supreme court justice, county court judge or district court judge in the judicial district in which the incident occurred, or if the incident occurred in the city of New York before any supreme court justice or judge of the criminal court of the city of New York. Such application may be communicated by telephone, radio or other means of electronic communication, or in person.
(2) The applicant must provide identification by name and title and must state the purpose of the communication. Upon being advised that an application for a court order to compel submission to a chemical test is being made, the court shall place under oath the applicant and any other person providing information in support of the application as provided in subparagraph three of this paragraph. After being sworn the applicant must state that the person from whom the chemical test was requested was the operator of a motor vehicle and in the course of such operation a person, other than the operator, has been killed or seriously injured and, based upon the totality of circumstances, there is reasonable cause to believe that such person was operating a motor vehicle in violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and, after being placed under lawful arrest such person refused to submit to a chemical test or any portion thereof, in accordance with the provisions of this section or is unable to give consent to such a test or any portion thereof. The applicant must make specific allegations of fact to support such statement. Any other person properly identified, may present sworn allegations of fact in support of the applicant's statement.
(3) Upon being advised that an oral application for a court order to compel a person to submit to a chemical test is being made, a judge or justice shall place under oath the applicant and any other person providing information in support of the application. Such oath or oaths and all of the remaining communication must be recorded, either by means of a voice recording device or verbatim stenographic or verbatim longhand notes. If a voice recording device is used or a stenographic record made, the judge must have the record transcribed, certify to the accuracy of the transcription and file the original record and transcription with the court within seventy-two hours of the issuance of the court order. If the longhand notes are taken, the judge shall subscribe a copy and file it with the court within twenty-four hours of the issuance of the order.
(4) If the court is satisfied that the requirements for the issuance of a court order pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this subdivision have been met, it may grant the application and issue an order requiring the accused to submit to a chemical test to determine the alcoholic and/or drug content of his blood and ordering the withdrawal of a blood sample in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (a) of subdivision four of this section. When a judge or justice determines to issue an order to compel submission to a chemical test based on an oral application, the applicant therefor shall prepare the order in accordance with the instructions of the judge or justice. In all cases the order shall include the name of the issuing judge or justice, the name of the applicant, and the date and time it was issued. It must be signed by the judge or justice if issued in person, or by the applicant if issued orally.
(5) Any false statement by an applicant or any other person in support of an application for a court order shall subject such person to the offenses for perjury set forth in article two hundred ten of the penal law.
(6) The chief administrator of the courts shall establish a schedule to provide that a sufficient number of judges or justices will be available in each judicial district to hear oral applications for court orders as permitted by this section.
(e) Administration of compulsory chemical test. An order issued pursuant to the provisions of this subdivision shall require that a chemical test to determine the alcoholic and/or drug content of the operator's blood must be administered. The provisions of paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of subdivision four of this section shall be applicable to any chemical test administered pursuant to this section.
4. Testing procedures. (a) Persons authorized to withdraw blood; immunity; testimony. (1) At the request of a police officer, the following persons may withdraw blood for the purpose of determining the alcoholic or drug content therein: (i) a physician, a registered professional nurse, a registered physician assistant, a certified nurse practitioner, or an advanced emergency medical technician as certified by the department of health; or (ii) under the supervision and at the direction of a physician, registered physician assistant or certified nurse practitioner acting within his or her lawful scope of practice, or upon the express consent of the person eighteen years of age or older from whom such blood is to be withdrawn: a clinical laboratory technician or clinical laboratory technologist licensed pursuant to article one hundred sixty-five of the education law; a phlebotomist; or a medical laboratory technician or medical technologist employed by a clinical laboratory approved under title five of article five of the public health law. This limitation shall not apply to the taking of a urine, saliva or breath specimen.
(2) No person entitled to withdraw blood pursuant to subparagraph one of this paragraph or hospital employing such person, and no other employer of such person shall be sued or held liable for any act done or omitted in the course of withdrawing blood at the request of a police officer pursuant to this section.
(3) Any person who may have a cause of action arising from the withdrawal of blood as aforesaid, for which no personal liability exists under subparagraph two of this paragraph, may maintain such action against the state if any person entitled to withdraw blood pursuant to paragraph (a) hereof acted at the request of a police officer employed by the state, or against the appropriate political subdivision of the state if such person acted at the request of a police officer employed by a political subdivision of the state. No action shall be maintained pursuant to this subparagraph unless notice of claim is duly filed or served in compliance with law.
(4) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this paragraph an action may be maintained by the state or a political subdivision thereof against a person entitled to withdraw blood pursuant to subparagraph one of this paragraph or hospital employing such person for whose act or omission the state or the political subdivision has been held liable under this paragraph to recover damages, not exceeding the amount awarded to the claimant, that may have been sustained by the state or the political subdivision by reason of gross negligence or bad faith on the part of such person.
(5) The testimony of any person other than a physician, entitled to withdraw blood pursuant to subparagraph one of this paragraph, in respect to any such withdrawal of blood made by such person may be received in evidence with the same weight, force and effect as if such withdrawal of blood were made by a physician.
(6) The provisions of subparagraphs two, three and four of this paragraph shall also apply with regard to any person employed by a hospital as security personnel for any act done or omitted in the course of withdrawing blood at the request of a police officer pursuant to a court order in accordance with subdivision three of this section.
(b) Right to additional test. The person tested shall be permitted to choose a physician to administer a chemical test in addition to the one administered at the direction of the police officer.
(c) Rules and regulations. The department of health shall issue and file rules and regulations approving satisfactory techniques or methods of conducting chemical analyses of a person's blood, urine, breath or saliva and to ascertain the qualifications and competence of individuals to conduct and supervise chemical analyses of a person's blood, urine, breath or saliva. If the analyses were made by an individual possessing a permit issued by the department of health, this shall be presumptive evidence that the examination was properly given. The provisions of this paragraph do not prohibit the introduction as evidence of an analysis made by an individual other than a person possessing a permit issued by the department of health.

§ 1194-A. Driving after having consumed alcohol; under twenty-one; procedure. 1. Chemical test report and hearing. (a) Whenever a chemical test of the breath, blood, urine or saliva of an operator who is under the age of twenty-one indicates that such person has operated a motor vehicle in violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article, and such person is not charged with violating any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two arising out of the same incident, the police officer who administered the test shall forward a report of the results of such test to the department within twenty-four hours of the time when such results are available in a manner prescribed by the commissioner, and the operator shall be given a hearing notice as provided in subdivision one-a of this section, to appear before a hearing officer in the county where the chemical test was administered, or in an adjoining county under such circumstances as prescribed by the commissioner, on a date to be established in accordance with a schedule promulgated by the commissioner. Such hearing shall occur within thirty days of, but not less than forty-eight hours from, the date that the chemical test was administered, provided, however, where the commissioner determines, based upon the availability of hearing officers and the anticipated volume of hearings at a particular location, that the scheduling of such hearing within thirty days would impair the timely scheduling or conducting of other hearings pursuant to this chapter, such hearing shall be scheduled at the next hearing date for such particular location. When providing the operator with such hearing notice, the police officer shall also give to the operator, and shall, prior to the commencement of the hearing, provide to the department, copies of the following reports, documents and materials: any written report or document, or portion thereof, concerning a physical examination, a scientific test or experiment, including the most recent record of inspection, or calibration or repair of machines or instruments utilized to perform such scientific tests or experiments and the certification certificate, if any, held by the operator of the machine or instrument, which tests or examinations were made by or at the request or direction of a public servant engaged in law enforcement activity. The report of the police officer shall be verified by having the report sworn to, or by affixing to such report a form notice that false statements made therein are punishable as a class A misdemeanor pursuant to section 210.45 of the penal law and such form notice together with the subscription of the deponent shall constitute verification of the report.
(b) Every person under the age of twenty-one who is alleged to have operated a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol as set forth in section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article, and who is not charged with violating any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article arising out of the same incident, is entitled to a hearing before a hearing officer in accordance with the provisions of this section. Unless otherwise provided by law, the license or permit to drive or any non-resident operating privilege of such person shall not be suspended or revoked prior to the scheduled date for such hearing.
(i) The hearing shall be limited to the following issues: (1) did such person operate the motor vehicle; (2) was a valid request to submit to a chemical test made by the police officer in accordance with the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article; (3) was such person less than twenty-one years of age at the time of operation of the motor vehicle; (4) was the chemical test properly administered in accordance with the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article; (5) did the test find that such person had driven after having consumed alcohol as defined in section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article; and (6) did the police officer make a lawful stop of such person. The burden of proof shall be on the police officer to prove each of these issues by clear and convincing evidence.
(ii) Every person who is entitled to a hearing pursuant to this subdivision has the right to be present at the hearing; the right to be represented by attorney, or in the hearing officer's discretion, by any other person the operator chooses; the right to receive and review discovery materials as provided in this subdivision; the right not to testify; the right to present evidence and witnesses in his own behalf, the right to cross examine adverse witnesses, and the right to appeal from an adverse determination in accordance with article three-A of this chapter. Any person representing the operator must conform to the standards of conduct required of attorneys appearing before state courts, and failure to conform to these standards will be grounds for declining to permit his continued appearance in the hearing.
(iii) Hearings conducted pursuant to this subdivision shall be in accordance with this subdivision and with the provisions applicable to the adjudication of traffic infractions pursuant to the following provisions of part 124 of title fifteen of the codes, rules and regulations of the state of New York: paragraph (b) of section 124.1 regarding the opening statement; paragraph (b) of section 124.2 regarding the right to representation and to remain silent and paragraphs (a) through (e) of section 124.4 regarding the conduct of the hearing, procedure and recusal; provided, however, that nothing contained in this subparagraph shall be deemed to preclude a hearing officer from changing the order of a hearing conducted pursuant to this subdivision as justice may require and for good cause shown.
(iv) The rules governing receipt of evidence in a court of law shall not apply in a hearing conducted pursuant to this subdivision except as follows:
(1) on the merits of the charge, and whether or not a party objects, the hearing officer shall exclude from consideration the following: a privileged communication; evidence which, for constitutional reasons, would not be admissible in a court of law; evidence of prior misconduct, incompetency or illness, except where such evidence would be admissible in a court of law; evidence which is irrelevant or immaterial;
(2) no negative inference shall be drawn from the operator's exercising the right not to testify.
(v) If, after such hearing, the hearing officer, acting on behalf of the commissioner, finds all of the issues set forth in this subdivision in the affirmative, the hearing officer shall suspend or revoke the license or permit to drive or non-resident operating privilege of such person in accordance with the time periods set forth in subdivision two of section eleven hundred ninety-three of this article. If, after such hearing, the hearing officer, acting on behalf of the commissioner, finds any of said issues in the negative, the hearing officer must find that the operator did not drive after having consumed alcohol.
(vi) A person who has had a license or permit to drive or non-resident operating privilege suspended or revoked pursuant to the provisions of this section may appeal the finding of the hearing officer in accordance with the provisions of article three-A of this chapter.
(c) Unless an adjournment of the hearing date has been granted, upon the operator's failure to appear for a scheduled hearing, the commissioner shall suspend the license or permit to drive or non-resident operating privilege until the operator petitions the commissioner and a rescheduled hearing is conducted, provided, however, the commissioner shall restore such person's license or permit to drive or non-resident operating privilege if such rescheduled hearing is adjourned at the request of a person other than the operator. Requests for adjournments shall be made and determined in accordance with regulations promulgated by the commissioner. If such a request by the operator for an adjournment is granted, the commissioner shall notify the operator of the rescheduled hearing, which shall be scheduled for the next hearing date. If a second or subsequent request by the operator for an adjournment is granted, the operator's license or permit to drive or non-resident operating privilege may be suspended pending the hearing at the time such adjournment is granted; provided, however, that the records of the department or the evidence already admitted furnishes reasonable grounds to believe such suspension is necessary to prevent continuing violations or a substantial traffic safety hazard; and provided further, that such hearing shall be scheduled for the next hearing date.
If a police officer does not appear for a hearing, the hearing officer shall have the authority to dismiss the charge. Any person may waive the right to a hearing under this subdivision, in a form and manner prescribed by the commissioner, and may enter an admission of guilt, in person or by mail, to the charge of operating a motor vehicle in violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article. Such admission of guilt shall have the same force and effect as a finding of guilt entered following a hearing conducted pursuant to this subdivision.
1-a. Hearing notice. The hearing notice issued to an operator pursuant to subdivision one of this section shall be in a form as prescribed by the commissioner. In addition to containing information concerning the time, date and location of the hearing, and such other information as the commissioner deems appropriate, such hearing notice shall also contain the following information: the date, time and place of the offense charged; the procedures for requesting an adjournment of a scheduled hearing as provided in this section, the operator's right to a hearing conducted pursuant to this section and the right to waive such hearing and plead guilty, either in person or by mail, to the offense charged.
2. Civil penalty. Unless otherwise provided, any person whose license, permit to drive, or any non-resident operating privilege is suspended or revoked pursuant to the provisions of this section shall also be liable for a civil penalty in the amount of one hundred twenty-five dollars, which shall be distributed in accordance with the provisions of subdivision nine of section eighteen hundred three of this chapter.
3. Refusal report and hearing. (a) Any person under the age of twenty-one who is suspected of operating a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol in violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this chapter, and who is not charged with violating any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article arising out of the same incident, and who has been requested to submit to a chemical test pursuant to paragraph (a) of subdivision two of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article and after having been informed that his license or permit to drive and any non-resident operating privilege shall be revoked for refusal to submit to such chemical test or any portion thereof, whether or not there is a finding of driving after having consumed alcohol, and such person refuses to submit to such chemical test or any portion thereof, shall be entitled to a hearing in accordance with a schedule promulgated by the commissioner, and such hearing shall occur within thirty days of, but not less than forty-eight hours from, the date of such refusal, provided, however, where the commissioner determines, based upon the availability of hearing officers and the anticipated volume of hearings at a particular location, that the scheduling of such hearing within thirty days would impair the timely scheduling or conducting of other hearings pursuant to this chapter, such hearing shall be scheduled at the next hearing date for such particular location.
(b) Unless an adjournment of the hearing date has been granted, upon the operator's failure to appear for a scheduled hearing, the commissioner shall suspend the license or permit to drive or non-resident operating privilege until the operator petitions the commissioner and a rescheduled hearing is conducted, provided, however, the commissioner shall restore such person's license or permit to drive or non-resident operating privilege if such rescheduled hearing is adjourned at the request of a person other than the operator. Requests for adjournments shall be made and determined in accordance with regulations promulgated by the commissioner. If such a request by the operator for an adjournment is granted, the commissioner shall notify the operator of the rescheduled hearing, which shall be scheduled for the next hearing date. If a second or subsequent request by the operator for an adjournment is granted, the operator's license or permit to drive or non-resident operating privilege may be suspended pending the hearing at the time such adjournment is granted; provided, however, that the records of the department or the evidence already admitted furnishes reasonable grounds to believe such suspension is necessary to prevent continuing violations or a substantial traffic safety hazard; and provided further, that such hearing shall be scheduled for the next hearing date.
If a police officer does not appear for a hearing, the hearing officer shall have the authority to dismiss the charge. Any person may waive the right to a hearing under this subdivision.
(c) The hearing on the refusal to submit to a chemical test pursuant to this subdivision shall be limited to the following issues: (1) was a valid request to submit to a chemical test made by the police officer in accordance with the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article; (2) was such person given sufficient warning, in clear or unequivocal language, prior to such refusal that such refusal to submit to such chemical test or any portion thereof, would result in the revocation of such person's license or permit to drive or nonresident operating privilege, whether or not such person is found to have operated a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol; (3) did such person refuse to submit to such chemical test or any portion thereof; (4) did such person operate the motor vehicle; (5) was such person less than twenty-one years of age at the time of operation of the motor vehicle; (6) did the police officer make a lawful stop of such person. If, after such hearing, the hearing officer, acting on behalf of the commissioner, finds on any one said issue in the negative, the hearing officer shall not revoke the operator's license or permit to drive or non-resident operating privilege and shall immediately terminate any outstanding suspension of the operator's license, permit to drive or non-resident operating privilege arising from such refusal. If, after such hearing, the hearing officer, acting on behalf of the commissioner, finds all of the issues in the affirmative, such hearing officer shall immediately revoke the license or permit to drive or any non-resident operating privilege in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (d) of subdivision two of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article. A person who has had a license or permit to drive or non-resident operating privilege suspended or revoked pursuant to the provisions of this section may appeal the findings of the hearing officer in accordance with the provisions of article three-A of this chapter.

§ 1195. Chemical test evidence. 1. Admissibility. Upon the trial of any action or proceeding arising out of actions alleged to have been committed by any person arrested for a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, the court shall admit evidence of the amount of alcohol or drugs in the defendant's blood as shown by a test administered pursuant to the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article.
2. Probative value. The following effect shall be given to evidence of blood-alcohol content, as determined by such tests, of a person arrested for violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article:
(a) Evidence that there was .05 of one per centum or less by weight of alcohol in such person's blood shall be prima facie evidence that the ability of such person to operate a motor vehicle was not impaired by the consumption of alcohol, and that such person was not in an intoxicated condition;
(b) Evidence that there was more than .05 of one per centum but less than .07 of one per centum by weight of alcohol in such person's blood shall be prima facie evidence that such person was not in an intoxicated condition, but such evidence shall be relevant evidence, but shall not be given prima facie effect, in determining whether the ability of such person to operate a motor vehicle was impaired by the consumption of alcohol; and
(c) Evidence that there was .07 of one per centum or more but less than .08 of one per centum by weight of alcohol in such person's blood shall be prima facie evidence that such person was not in an intoxicated condition, but such evidence shall be given prima facie effect in determining whether the ability of such person to operate a motor vehicle was impaired by the consumption of alcohol.
3. Suppression. A defendant who has been compelled to submit to a chemical test pursuant to the provisions of subdivision three of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article may move for the suppression of such evidence in accordance with article seven hundred ten of the criminal procedure law on the grounds that the order was obtained and the test administered in violation of the provisions of such subdivision or any other applicable law.

§ 1196. Alcohol and drug rehabilitation program. 1. Program establishment. There is hereby established an alcohol and drug rehabilitation program within the department of motor vehicles. The commissioner shall establish, by regulation, the instructional and rehabilitative aspects of the program. Such program shall consist of at least fifteen hours and include, but need not be limited to, classroom instruction in areas deemed suitable by the commissioner. No person shall be required to attend or participate in such program or any aspect thereof for a period exceeding eight months except upon the recommendation of the department of mental hygiene or appropriate health officials administering the program on behalf of a municipality.
2. Curriculum. The form, content and method of presentation of the various aspects of such program shall be established by the commissioner. In the development of the form, curriculum and content of such program, the commissioner may consult with the commissioner of mental health, the director of the division of alcoholism and alcohol abuse, the director of the division of substance abuse services and any other state department or agency and request and receive assistance from them. The commissioner is also authorized to develop more than one curriculum and course content for such program in order to meet the varying rehabilitative needs of the participants.
3. Where available. A course in such program shall be available in at least every county in the state, except where the commissioner determines that there is not a sufficient number of alcohol or drug-related traffic offenses in a county to mandate the establishment of said course, and that provisions be made for the residents of said county to attend a course in another county where a course exists.
4. Eligibility. Participation in the program shall be limited to those persons convicted of alcohol or drug-related traffic offenses or persons who have been adjudicated youthful offenders for alcohol or drug-related traffic offenses, or persons found to have been operating a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol in violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article, who choose to participate and who satisfy the criteria and meet the requirements for participation as established by this section and the regulations promulgated thereunder; provided, however, in the exercise of discretion, the judge imposing sentence may prohibit the defendant from enrolling in such program. The commissioner or deputy may exercise discretion, to reject any person from participation referred to such program and nothing herein contained shall be construed as creating a right to be included in any course or program established under this section. In addition, no person shall be permitted to take part in such program if, during the five years immediately preceding commission of an alcohol or drug-related traffic offense or a finding of a violation of section eleven hundred ninety-two-a of this article, such person has participated in a program established pursuant to this article or been convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article other than a violation committed prior to November first, nineteen hundred eighty-eight, for which such person did not participate in such program. In the exercise of discretion, the commissioner or a deputy shall have the right to expel any participant from the program who fails to satisfy the requirements for participation in such program or who fails to satisfactorily participate in or attend any aspect of such program. Notwithstanding any contrary provisions of this chapter, satisfactory participation in and completion of a course in such program shall result in the termination of any sentence of imprisonment that may have been imposed by reason of a conviction therefor; provided, however, that nothing contained in this section shall delay the commencement of such sentence.
5. Effect of completion. Except as provided in subparagraph nine of paragraph (b) of subdivision two of section eleven hundred ninety-three or in subparagraph three of paragraph (d) of subdivision two of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article, upon successful completion of a course in such program as certified by its administrator, a participant may apply to the commissioner on a form provided for that purpose, for the termination of the suspension or revocation order issued as a result of the participant's conviction which caused the participation in such course. In the exercise of discretion, upon receipt of such application, and upon payment of any civil penalties for which the applicant may be liable, the commissioner is authorized to terminate such order or orders and return the participant's license or reinstate the privilege of operating a motor vehicle in this state. However, the commissioner shall not issue any new license nor restore any license where said issuance of restoral is prohibited by subdivision two of section eleven hundred ninety-three of this article.
6. Fees. The commissioner shall establish a schedule of fees to be paid by or on behalf of each participant in the program, and may, from time to time, modify same. Such fees shall defray the ongoing expenses of the program. Provided, however, that pursuant to an agreement with the department a municipality, department thereof, or other agency may conduct a course in such program with all or part of the expense of such course and program being borne by such municipality, department or agency. In no event shall such fee be refundable, either for reasons of the participant's withdrawal or expulsion from such program or otherwise.
7. Conditional license. (a) Notwithstanding any inconsistent provision of this chapter, participants in the program, except those penalized under paragraph (d) of subdivision one of section eleven hundred ninety-three of this article for any violation of subdivision two, three, or four of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, may, in the commissioner's discretion, be issued a conditional driver's license, or if the holder of a license issued by another jurisdiction valid for operation in this state, a conditional privilege of operating a motor vehicle in this state. Such a conditional license or privilege shall be valid only for use, by the holder thereof, (1) enroute to and from the holder's place of employment, (2) if the holder's employment requires the operation of a motor vehicle then during the hours thereof, (3) enroute to and from a class or an activity which is an authorized part of the alcohol and drug rehabilitation program and at which his attendance is required, (4) enroute to and from a class or course at an accredited school, college or university or at a state approved institution of vocational or technical training, (5) to or from court ordered probation activities, (6) to and from a motor vehicle office for the transaction of business relating to such license or program, (7) for a three hour consecutive daytime period, chosen by the administrators of the program, on a day during which the participant is not engaged in usual employment or vocation, (8) enroute to and from a medical examination or treatment as part of a necessary medical treatment for such participant or member of the participant's household, as evidenced by a written statement to that effect from a licensed medical practitioner, and (9) enroute to and from a place, including a school, at which a child or children of the holder are cared for on a regular basis and which is necessary for the holder to maintain such holder's employment or enrollment at an accredited school, college or university or at a state approved institution of vocational or technical training. Such license or privilege shall remain in effect during the term of the suspension or revocation of the participant's license or privilege unless earlier revoked by the commissioner.
(b) The conditional license or privilege described in paragraph (a) of this subdivision shall be in a form prescribed by the commissioner, and shall have indicated thereon the conditions imposed by such paragraph.
(c) Upon receipt of a conditional license issued pursuant to this section, any order issued by a judge, justice or magistrate pursuant to paragraph (c) of subdivision two of section eleven hundred ninety-three of this article shall be surrendered to the department.
(d) The commissioner shall require applicants for a conditional license to pay a fee of seventy-five dollars for processing costs. Such fees assessed under this subdivision shall be paid to the commissioner for deposit to the general fund and shall be in addition to any fees established by the commissioner pursuant to subdivision six of this section to defray the costs of the alcohol and drug rehabilitation program.
(e) The conditional license or privileges described in this subdivision may be revoked by the commissioner, for sufficient cause including, but not limited to, failure to register in the program, failure to attend or satisfactorily participate in the sessions, conviction of any traffic infraction other than one involving parking, stopping or standing or conviction of any alcohol or drug-related traffic offense, misdemeanor or felony. In addition, the commissioner shall have the right, after a hearing, to revoke the conditional license or privilege upon receiving notification or evidence that the offender is not attempting in good faith to accept rehabilitation. In the event of such revocation, the fee described in subdivision six of this section shall not be refunded.
(f) It shall be a traffic infraction for the holder of a conditional license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle upon a public highway for any use other than those authorized pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subdivision. When a person is convicted of this offense, the sentence of the court must be a fine of not less than two hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars or a term of imprisonment of not more than fifteen days or both such fine and imprisonment. Additionally, the conditional license or privileges described in this subdivision shall be revoked by the commissioner upon receiving notification from the court that the holder thereof has been convicted of this offense.
(g) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in a certificate of relief from disabilities or a certificate of good conduct issued pursuant to article twenty-three of the correction law, any conditional license or privilege issued to a person convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article shall not be valid for the operation of any commercial motor vehicle. In addition, no such conditional license or privilege shall be valid for the operation of a taxicab as defined in this chapter.
(h) Notwithstanding any inconsistent provision of this chapter, the conditional license described in this subdivision may, pursuant to regulations established by the commissioner, be issued to a person whose license has been suspended pending prosecution pursuant to subparagraph seven of paragraph (e) of subdivision two of section eleven hundred ninety-three of this article.

* § 1198. Installation and operation of ignition interlock devices. 1. Applicability. The provisions of this section shall apply throughout the state to each person required or otherwise ordered by a court as a condition of probation or conditional discharge to install and operate an ignition interlock device in any vehicle which he or she owns or operates.
2. Requirements. (a) In addition to any other penalties prescribed by law, the court shall require that any person who has been convicted of a violation of subdivision two, two-a or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, or any crime defined by this chapter or the penal law of which an alcohol-related violation of any provision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article is an essential element, to install and maintain, as a condition of probation or conditional discharge, a functioning ignition interlock device in accordance with the provisions of this section and, as applicable, in accordance with the provisions of subdivisions one and one-a of section eleven hundred ninety-three of this article; provided, however, the court may not authorize the operation of a motor vehicle by any person whose license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle has been revoked except as provided herein. For any such individual subject to a sentence of probation, installation and maintenance of such ignition interlock device shall be a condition of probation.
(b) Nothing contained in this section shall prohibit a court, upon application by a probation department, from modifying the conditions of probation of any person convicted of any violation set forth in paragraph (a) of this subdivision prior to the effective date of this section, to require the installation and maintenance of a functioning ignition interlock device, and such person shall thereafter be subject to the provisions of this section.
(c) Nothing contained in this section shall authorize a court to sentence any person to a period of probation or conditional discharge for the purpose of subjecting such person to the provisions of this section, unless such person would have otherwise been so eligible for a sentence of probation or conditional discharge.
3. Conditions. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the commissioner may grant a post-revocation conditional license, as set forth in paragraph (b) of this subdivision, to a person who has been convicted of a violation of subdivision two, two-a or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and who has been sentenced to a period of probation or conditional discharge, provided the person has satisfied the minimum period of license revocation established by law and the commissioner has been notified that such person may operate only a motor vehicle equipped with a functioning ignition interlock device. No such request shall be made nor shall such a license be granted, however, if such person has been found by a court to have committed a violation of section five hundred eleven of this chapter during the license revocation period or deemed by a court to have violated any condition of probation or conditional discharge set forth by the court relating to the operation of a motor vehicle or the consumption of alcohol. In exercising discretion relating to the issuance of a post-revocation conditional license pursuant to this subdivision, the commissioner shall not deny such issuance based solely upon the number of convictions for violations of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article committed by such person within the ten years prior to application for such license. Upon the termination of the period of probation or conditional discharge set by the court, the person may apply to the commissioner for restoration of a license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle in accordance with this chapter.
(b) Notwithstanding any inconsistent provision of this chapter, a post-revocation conditional license granted pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subdivision shall be valid only for use by the holder thereof, (1) enroute to and from the holder's place of employment, (2) if the holder's employment requires the operation of a motor vehicle then during the hours thereof, (3) enroute to and from a class or course at an accredited school, college or university or at a state approved institution of vocational or technical training, (4) to and from court ordered probation activities, (5) to and from a motor vehicle office for the transaction of business relating to such license, (6) for a three hour consecutive daytime period, chosen by the department, on a day during which the participant is not engaged in usual employment or vocation, (7) enroute to and from a medical examination or treatment as part of a necessary medical treatment for such participant or member of the participant's household, as evidenced by a written statement to that effect from a licensed medical practitioner, (8) enroute to and from a class or an activity which is an authorized part of the alcohol and drug rehabilitation program and at which participant's attendance is required, and (9) enroute to and from a place, including a school, at which a child or children of the participant are cared for on a regular basis and which is necessary for the participant to maintain such participant's employment or enrollment at an accredited school, college or university or at a state approved institution of vocational or technical training.
(c) The post-revocation conditional license described in this subdivision may be revoked by the commissioner for sufficient cause including but not limited to, failure to comply with the terms of the condition of probation or conditional discharge set forth by the court, conviction of any traffic offense other than one involving parking, stopping or standing or conviction of any alcohol or drug related offense, misdemeanor or felony or failure to install or maintain a court ordered ignition interlock device.
(d) Nothing contained herein shall prohibit the court from requiring, as a condition of probation or conditional discharge, the installation of a functioning ignition interlock device in any vehicle owned or operated by a person sentenced for a violation of subdivision two, two-a, or three of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this chapter, or any crime defined by this chapter or the penal law of which an alcohol-related violation of any provision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this chapter is an essential element, if the court in its discretion, determines that such a condition is necessary to ensure the public safety. Imposition of an ignition interlock condition shall in no way limit the effect of any period of license suspension or revocation set forth by the commissioner or the court.
(e) Nothing contained herein shall prevent the court from applying any other conditions of probation or conditional discharge allowed by law, including treatment for alcohol or drug abuse, restitution and community service.
(f) The commissioner shall note on the operator's record of any person restricted pursuant to this section that, in addition to any other restrictions, conditions or limitations, such person may operate only a motor vehicle equipped with an ignition interlock device.
4. Proof of compliance and recording of condition. (a) Following imposition by the court of the use of an ignition interlock device as a condition of probation or conditional discharge it shall require the person to provide proof of compliance with this section to the court and the probation department or other monitor where such person is under probation or conditional discharge supervision. If the person fails to provide for such proof of installation, absent a finding by the court of good cause for that failure which is entered in the record, the court may revoke, modify, or terminate the person's sentence of probation or conditional discharge as provided under law. Good cause may include a finding that the person is not the owner of a motor vehicle if such person asserts under oath that such person is not the owner of any motor vehicle and that he or she will not operate any motor vehicle during the period of interlock restriction except as may be otherwise authorized pursuant to law. "Owner" shall have the same meaning as provided in section one hundred twenty-eight of this chapter.
(b) When a court imposes the condition specified in subdivision one of this section, the court shall notify the commissioner in such manner as the commissioner may prescribe, and the commissioner shall note such condition on the operating record of the person subject to such conditions.
5. Cost, installation and maintenance. (a) The cost of installing and maintaining the ignition interlock device shall be borne by the person subject to such condition unless the court determines such person is financially unable to afford such cost whereupon such cost may be imposed pursuant to a payment plan or waived. In the event of such waiver, the cost of the device shall be borne in accordance with regulations issued under paragraph (g) of subdivision one of section eleven hundred ninety-three of this article or pursuant to such other agreement as may be entered into for provision of the device. Such cost shall be considered a fine for the purposes of subdivision five of section 420.10 of the criminal procedure law. Such cost shall not replace, but shall instead be in addition to, any fines, surcharges, or other costs imposed pursuant to this chapter or other applicable laws.
(b) The installation and service provider of the device shall be responsible for the installation, calibration, and maintenance of such device.
6. Certification. (a) The commissioner of the department of health shall approve ignition interlock devices for installation pursuant to subdivision one of this section and shall publish a list of approved devices.
(b) After consultation with manufacturers of ignition interlock devices and the national highway traffic safety administration, the commissioner of the department of health, in consultation with the commissioner and the office of probation and correctional alternatives, shall promulgate regulations regarding standards for, and use of, ignition interlock devices. Such standards shall include provisions for setting a minimum and maximum calibration range and shall include, but not be limited to, requirements that the devices:
(1) have features that make circumventing difficult and that do not interfere with the normal or safe operation of the vehicle;
(2) work accurately and reliably in an unsupervised environment;
(3) resist tampering and give evidence if tampering is attempted;
(4) minimize inconvenience to a sober user;
(5) require a proper, deep, lung breath sample or other accurate measure of blood alcohol content equivalence;
(6) operate reliably over the range of automobile environments;
(7) correlate well with permissible levels of alcohol consumption as may be established by the sentencing court or by any provision of law; and
(8) are manufactured by a party covered by product liability insurance.
(c) The commissioner of the department of health may, in his discretion, adopt in whole or relevant part, the guidelines, rules, regulations, studies, or independent laboratory tests performed on and relied upon for the certification or approval of ignition interlock devices by other states, their agencies or commissions.
7. Use of other vehicles. (a) Any requirement of this article or the penal law that a person operate a vehicle only if it is equipped with an ignition interlock device shall apply to every motor vehicle operated by that person including, but not limited to, vehicles that are leased, rented or loaned.
(b) No person shall knowingly rent, lease, or lend a motor vehicle to a person known to have had his or her driving privilege restricted to vehicles equipped with an ignition interlock device unless the vehicle is so equipped. Any person whose driving privilege is so restricted shall notify any other person who rents, leases, or loans a motor vehicle to him or her of such driving restriction.
(c) A violation of paragraph (a) or (b) of this subdivision shall be a misdemeanor.
8. Employer vehicle. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision one and paragraph (d) of subdivision nine of this section, if a person is required to operate a motor vehicle owned by said person's employer in the course and scope of his or her employment, the person may operate that vehicle without installation of an approved ignition interlock device only in the course and scope of such employment and only if the employer has been notified that the person's driving privilege has been restricted under the provisions of this article or the penal law and the person whose privilege has been so restricted has provided the court and probation department with written documentation indicating the employer has knowledge of the restriction imposed and has granted permission for the person to operate the employer's vehicle without the device only for business purposes. The person shall notify the court and the probation department of his or her intention to so operate the employer's vehicle. A motor vehicle owned by a business entity which business entity is all or partly owned or controlled by a person otherwise subject to the provisions of this article or the penal law is not a motor vehicle owned by the employer for purposes of the exemption provided in this subdivision. The provisions of this subdivision shall apply only to the operation of such vehicle in the scope of such employment.
9. Circumvention of interlock device. (a) No person whose driving privilege is restricted pursuant to this article or the penal law shall request, solicit or allow any other person to blow into an ignition interlock device, or to start a motor vehicle equipped with the device, for the purpose of providing the person so restricted with an operable motor vehicle.
(b) No person shall blow into an ignition interlock device or start a motor vehicle equipped with the device for the purpose of providing an operable motor vehicle to a person whose driving privilege is so restricted.
(c) No person shall tamper with or circumvent an otherwise operable ignition interlock device.
(d) No person subject to a court ordered ignition interlock device shall operate a motor vehicle without such device.
(e) In addition to any other provisions of law, any person convicted of a violation of paragraph (a), (b), (c), or (d) of this subdivision shall be guilty of a Class A misdemeanor.
10. Warning label. The department of health shall design a warning label which the manufacturer shall affix to each ignition interlock device upon installation in the state. The label shall contain a warning that any person tampering, circumventing, or otherwise misusing the device is guilty of a misdemeanor and may be subject to civil liability.
* NB Repealed September 1, 2015

§ 1198-A. Special procedures and disposition involving alcohol and substance abuse assessment and treatment. 1. Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following terms shall have the following meanings:
(a) "Alcohol and substance abuse professional" shall mean persons credentialed by the office of alcoholism and substance abuse services to provide alcohol and substance abuse services pursuant to the mental hygiene law and persons licensed by the state education department in an appropriate health field, including licensed clinical social worker, licensed master social worker, licensed mental health counselor, nurse practitioner, physician, physician's assistant, psychiatrist, psychologist, and registered nurse.
(b) "Licensed agency" shall mean an agency licensed by the office of alcoholism and substance abuse services to provide alcohol and substance abuse services pursuant to the mental hygiene law.
2. Procedure. (a) Mandatory screening; when authorized. Upon the arraignment of, or at the discretion of the court, prior to the sentencing of any person who (i) at arraignment is charged with or prior to sentencing convicted of a first violation of operating a motor vehicle in violation of subdivision one, two or three or paragraph (b) of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article while such person has less than .15 of one per centum by weight of alcohol in the person's blood as shown by chemical analysis of such person's blood, breath, urine or saliva made pursuant to the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article, or in violation of subdivision four of such section eleven hundred ninety-two, or (ii) has refused to submit to a chemical test pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article, the court shall order such person to submit to screening for alcohol or substance abuse and dependency using a standardized written screening instrument developed by the office of alcoholism and substance abuse services, to be administered by an alcohol or substance abuse professional.
(b) Mandatory assessment; when authorized. The court shall order a defendant to undergo a formal alcohol or substance abuse and dependency assessment by an alcohol or substance abuse professional or a licensed agency: (i) when the screening required by paragraph (a) of this subdivision indicates that a defendant is abusing or dependent upon alcohol or drugs; (ii) following the arraignment of any person charged with or, at the discretion of the court, prior to the sentencing of any person convicted of a violation of subdivision one, two, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article after having been convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article or of vehicular assault in the second or first degree, as defined, respectively, in sections 120.03 and 120.04 of the penal law or of aggravated vehicular assault, as defined in section 120.04-a of the penal law or of vehicular manslaughter in the second or first degree, as defined, respectively, in sections 125.12 and 125.13 of the penal law or of aggravated vehicular homicide, as defined in section 125.14 of such law within the preceding five years or after having been convicted of a violation of any subdivision of such section or of vehicular assault in the second or first degree, as defined, respectively, in sections 120.03 and 120.04 of the penal law or of aggravated vehicular assault, as defined in section 120.04-a of the penal law or of vehicular manslaughter in the second or first degree, as defined, respectively, in sections 125.12 and 125.13 of the penal law or of aggravated vehicular homicide, as defined in section 125.14 of such law, two or more times within the preceding ten years; or (iii) following the arraignment of any person charged with or, at the discretion of the court, prior to the sentencing of any person convicted of operating a motor vehicle in violation of subdivision two or three or paragraph (b) of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article while such person has .15 of one per centum or more by weight of alcohol in the person's blood as shown by a chemical analysis of such person's blood, breath, urine or saliva made pursuant to the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article or in violation of paragraph (a) of subdivision two-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article.
(c) Mandatory assessment; procedure. The assessment ordered by a court pursuant to this section shall be performed by an alcohol or substance abuse professional or a licensed agency which shall forward the results, in writing, to the court and to the defendant or his or her counsel within thirty days of the date of such order.
3. Authorized disposition. When a sentence of probation or a conditional discharge is imposed upon a person who has been required to undergo an alcohol or substance abuse and dependency assessment pursuant to subdivision two of this section and where such assessment indicates that such person is in need of treatment for alcohol or substance abuse or dependency, the court shall require, as a condition of such sentence, that such person participate in and successfully complete such treatment. Such treatment shall be provided by an alcohol or substance abuse professional or a licensed agency.
4. Any case wherein a court has accepted a plea pursuant to the provisions of subparagraph (ii) of paragraph (a) of subdivision ten of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article and such plea includes as a condition thereof that the defendant attend and complete the alcohol and drug rehabilitation program established pursuant to section eleven hundred ninety-six of this article, including any assessment and treatment required thereby, shall be deemed to be in compliance with the provisions of this section.
5. The chief administrator of the office of court administration shall make available to all courts in this state with jurisdiction in criminal cases a list of alcohol and substance abuse professionals and licensed agencies as provided by the office of alcoholism and substance abuse services pursuant to subdivision (g) of section 19.07 of the mental hygiene law.
6. Confidentiality of records. (a) The records and content of all screenings, assessments and treatment conducted pursuant to this section, including the identity, diagnosis and prognosis of each individual who is the subject of such records, and including any statements or admissions of such individual made during the course of such screenings, assessments and treatment, shall be confidential, shall not be disclosed except as authorized by this subdivision, and shall not be entered or received as evidence at any civil, criminal or administrative trial, hearing or proceeding. No person, other than a defendant to whom such records are disclosed, may redisclose such records.
(b) Consistent with Section 290 dd-2 of Title 42 of the United States Code, as such law may, from time to time, be amended, such records and content may only be disclosed as follows:
(i) to a court for the sole purpose of requiring a defendant charged with or convicted of a violation of subdivision one, two, two-a, three, four or four-a of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article to undergo alcohol or substance abuse or dependency assessment or treatment;
(ii) to the defendant or his or her authorized representative; and
(iii) to medical personnel to the extent necessary to meet a bona fide medical emergency.
7. Effect of completion of treatment. Except as provided in subparagraph nine of paragraph (b) of subdivision two of section eleven hundred ninety-three or in subparagraph three of paragraph (d) of subdivision two of section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article, upon successful completion of treatment ordered pursuant to this section as certified by the alcohol or substance abuse professional or licensed agency which provided such treatment, the defendant may apply to the commissioner on a form provided for that purpose, for the termination of the suspension or revocation order issued as a result of the defendant's conviction. In the exercise of discretion, upon receipt of such application, and upon payment of any civil penalties for which the defendant may be liable, the commissioner is authorized to terminate such order or orders and return the defendant's license or reinstate the privilege of operating a motor vehicle in this state. However, the commissioner shall not issue any new license nor restore any license where said issuance or restoration is prohibited by subdivision two of section eleven hundred ninety-three of this article.

§ 1199. Driver responsibility assessment. 1. In addition to any fines, fees, penalties and surcharges authorized by law, any person convicted of a violation of any subdivision of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, or any person found to have refused a chemical test in accordance with section eleven hundred ninety-four of this article not arising out of the same incident as a conviction for a violation of any of the provisions of section eleven hundred ninety-two of this article, shall become liable to the department for payment of a driver responsibility assessment as provided in this section.
2. The amount of the driver responsibility assessment under this section shall be two hundred fifty dollars per year for a three-year period.
3. Upon receipt of evidence that a person is liable for the driver responsibility assessment required by this section, the commissioner shall notify such person by first class mail to the address of such person on file with the department or at the current address provided by the United States postal service of the amount of such assessment, the time and manner of making required payments, and that failure to make payment shall result in the suspension of his or her driver's license or privilege of obtaining a driver's license.
4. If a person shall fail to pay any driver responsibility assessment as provided in this section, the commissioner shall suspend such person's driver's license or privilege of obtaining a license. Such suspension shall remain in effect until any and all outstanding driver responsibility assessments have been paid in full.
5. The provisions of this section shall also be applicable to any person convicted of any violation of section forty-nine-a of the navigation law, any person convicted of a violation of section 25.24 of the parks, recreation and historic preservation law, or any person found to have refused a chemical test in accordance with the applicable provisions of either the navigation law or the parks, recreation and historic preservation law not arising out of the same incident as such conviction.

Alcohol, Drugs & DWI Program Overview | "Zero Tolerance Law" - Under 21